Mercenary War. They were not to recruit soldiers or raise money for the construction of public buildings in the territory of the other. Iberia , B.C. Histories. and Disposition of Troops, Leontius, Megaleas, and Ptolemy Rouse the Guard, Return to Narrative of the War in Force was combined with diplomacy, for instance when Navaras, a Numidian prince, offered to defect with his followers and was rewarded by marriage to Hamilcar's daughter. A consequence of this conflict was the Mercenary War (240 BC–237 BC) between Carthage and its unpaid mercenaries, which Rome helped to … The leaders of the mercenaries, according to Polybius, … According to Polybius, there had been several trade agreements between Rome and Carthage, even a mutual alliance against Pyrrhus of Epirus. 161-179) why Polybius pays so much attention to the Mercenary War and comes to the conclusion that the account shows Carthage in a situation in which she was most threatened, an analogy to Rome’s situation after the battle of Cannae. Italy, Roman Camps Designed for Facility and Familiarity, The Cretan Constitution Compared to the Spartan, The Glorious Memory of Brave Men Kept Alive, Religion Keeps the Roman Commonwealth Together, Conclusion: Dangers Ahead for It is in these campaigns far more than the war in Sicily that we see evidence of Hamilcar's skill as a general, consistently outmanoeuvring the larger rebel forces. Carthaginian commanders may have been more 'professional' than their Roman counterparts, and certainly remained in their posts for much longer periods, but few would have had much experience of commanding such large forces as were frequently employed during the war. Only Claudius was prosecuted on the charge of perduellio (in a sense 'bringing the state into disrepute') for his behaviour at Drepana, but narrowly escaped condemnation and was instead found guilty of a lesser charge and fined.10 However, the subsequent arraignment of his sister suggests that the family was perceived to be politically vulnerable in the years immediately afterwards. Opening with the Punic War in 264 BC, he vividly records the critical stages of Roman expansion: its campaigns throughout the Mediterranean, the temporary setbacks inflicted by Hannibal and the final destruction of Carthage. : Works of Art Taken To Rome, Cleomenes Tries to Take Libya, Previous Histories of this March either False or Inconsistent, Cavalry Engagement on the At the end of the twenty-three-year struggle both sides were exhausted and eager to settle. translator. Therefore Catulus referred the terms back to Rome for approval. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Understandably, the mercenaries who had fought loyally and well for their masters according to their contracts were reluctant to accept payment of less than their due and felt betrayed. Polybius. Just about the same time they found themselves confronted by three enemies at once, their own mercenaries, the Numidians, and such Libyans as joined the former in their revolt. , B. C. : Philip Reduces Thessaly, Contrast Between Alexander and the Aetolians, Sparta Greece Carthage had been involved in sporadic conflict in Sicily for centuries before the Romans arrived, and if she had never gained full control of the island, neither had she been completely expelled. In one respect the annual arrival of new Roman commanders may have proved an asset, for it ensured that the army and navy were commanded very aggressively, by men hoping to gain distinction in their short term of office. The man chosen was Aulus Atilius Caiat-inus, who had been praetor in 257, and as consul in 258 and 254 had already commanded in two Sicilian campaigns earlier in the conflict.8 However, the Senate made little use of its power to prorogue a magistrate's imperium (the prolonging of the command of those of proven ability), something which became common in the Second Punic War. Some of his followers had deserted to the Romans during the war and later went on to betray successive employers.12 Though veteran soldiers (Spendius had an especially distinguished record during the war with Rome) none of these men had experience of high command and the movements of the rebel armies were clumsy and poorly co-ordinated. 215, The Necessity of Caution in Dealing with an Enemy, Rome Coele-Syria, Artabazanes Makes a Treaty with Antiochus, Antiochus Puts his Troops in Winter Quarters, Antiochus Attempts to Complete his Conquest, Forces Available to Antiochus and Ptolemy, Theodotus Attempts to Assassinate Ptolemy, Dispositions For the Battle of Placentia, A General Must Know his Enemy's Character, Fertility and Beauty of the Plains Near Hamilcar Barca and Hanno, who was a better organizer than commander, did not get along with each other and the operations of their armies were hindered by the sort of disputes which are normally held to be more typical of the Roman than Punic military systems. The Carthaginians soon realized that the negotiations were not succeeding and, aware that they would have difficulty in controlling 20,000 well-equipped veteran soldiers, agreed to pay the full amounts the men were due, but it was too late. Italy Their inexperience of command at this level added to the already major practical difficulties in co-ordinating the movements of hundreds of oared warships and was perhaps another factor in denying the Carthaginian navy the advantages it ought to have derived from the superior skill of its crews. Within months of the end of the war, Carthage was plunged into a conflict which, if shorter than the struggle with Rome, seemed to pose a far greater threat to her very existence. Eryx, Why Lacking a common language and without the unifying force of a Carthaginian command structure, the mercenaries at Sicca had fragmented into groups along ethnic lines. and Calchedon, Byzantium Polybius, Histories ... Extension of the First Plan of the Work The True Theory of Historical Causes Causes of the Second Punic War Fabius Pictor on the Cause of the Punic War The Credibility of Fabius Pictor First Cause of the Second Punic War Second Cause of the War Hannibal ... at the conclusion of this mercenary B.C. 204, Nabis, Tyrant of Sparta, B.C. Byzantium With very few exceptions the Libyan communities declared for the rebels and swelled the size of their forces. Cassius Dio, who lived centuries later, c 155 ACE (after Common Era) to c 235 ACE, told of these events with a few, significant, differences. This was especially true of the admirals appointed to control the operations of the unprecedentedly large fleets which were formed on several occasions. 238. Alternatively the anarchy in Sardinia may have been seen as a potential threat to Italy's maritime trade, but our sources lack any detailed discussion of the reasons for the Roman change of heart.16 However, most, and especially Polybius, agreed that the action was morally indefensible.17, Sardinia did not prove an easy conquest and for much of the 230s fierce campaigning continued there, with both of the year's consuls active there in 232 and 2 31.18 Whether or not there was truth in the accusation, the Romans certainly seem to have believed that Carthaginian agents actively encouraged Sardinian resistance to Rome and the island remained a continued source of friction between the two states during these years.19. , The Gauls, And Rhodians, Achaeus and Prusias I. of Peloponnese, Philip Returns To the Bruce Gibson wonders in chapter 8 (pp. Rome Sparta, Machatas Proposes Foreign War to Quell Domestic Strife, Flow of the Philip V. Wages War with Attalus, King of Pergamum, and the Rhodians. However, the Carthaginians chose to ignore these sensible arrangements and refused to pay anyone until the whole force had been shipped to Africa, convinced that the mercenaries could be persuaded to accept a lower settlement, in the light of the unsuccessful outcome of the war and Carthage's difficult financial position. Yet Carthage had lost none of its power in Africa or Spain, and, for the moment, held on to Sardinia. options are on the right side and top of the page. Danube The mercenary ... Polybius is the main source, and the most reliable, 5 and this paper draws heavily from his work. Mantinea, Scipio in from areas controlled by Carthage. , and Soon an army many times the size of the one Regulus had led began the blockade of Carthage. London, New York. The Mercenary War (240 BC – 238 BC), also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius, was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.. 189, xx Birth of Polybius. In addition to this, Punic naval power had been broken and no longer dominated the western Mediterranean, more as a result of the loss of its island bases than the losses in ships which it had suffered, since in time the latter could be replaced. Acarnania, Thebes Sempronius Plans to Attack, The Romans Retreat to and Philip V. in B. C. 1889. On the whole Roman commanders performed fairly well. Greece Sparta The campaigns of the First War involved both consuls serving together more often than had been the case in the past. ), A Meeting of the Achaean League Parliament, Apollonidas and Cassander Urge Rejection of Eumenes' Gifts, Caecilius Reports and Ambassadors Respond, Ostiagon Tries to Become King of All the Gauls, Philip and Perseus are Jealous of Demetrius, The Senate Refuses to Help Either Messene or Achaia, Character of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Arguments For and Against Admitting Sparta, Treaty Between the Achaeans and the Messenians, Comparison Between Philopoemen and Aristaenus, The Dardanian Envoys Complain about Perseus, Affairs In Boeotia: The War with Perseus, Attalus Wants his Brother's Honours Restored, Marcius Declines Assistance from the Achaeans, Eulaeus Convinces Ptolemy to Give Up the Kingdom, Difficulty of Explaining the Intrigues of Perseus and Eumenes, Reasons to Suspect Intrigue between Eumenes and Perseus, Scipio Nasica and Fabius Maximus Volunteer to Outflank the Macedonians, A Cretan Deserter Brings Intelligence to Perseus, The Senate Makes an Example of the Rhodian Ambassadors, Perseus an Example of the Impermanence of Fortune, Shameless Conduct of the Supporters of Perseus, Statue-bases for Perseus Used by Aemilius, The Romanising Party Takes Command Throughout Greece, Public Hatred of Callicrates and His Faction, The Senate Suspicious of Eumenes and Antiochus, The Senate Breaks its Alliance with Ptolemy Philometor, Issa Complains of Raids by the Dalmations, The Senate Receives Ambassadors from Epirus, The Prienians Refuse to Give Orophernes' Funds to Ariarathes, The Senate Appoints Commissioners to Stop the War, Roman Commissioners Visit Attalus and Prusias, Roman Envoys Make Peace Between Prusias and Attalus, Crete and Rhodes Ask the Achaeans for Help, Eratosthenes a Better Authority than Artemidorus, Consummation of the Misfortunes of Greece, Unjust Misfortune Distinguished from Self-Inflicted Loss, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1:1.65, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1. The Mercenary War (c. 240 BC) — also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius — was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.. The indemnity was increased to 3,200 talents, 1,000 payable immediately and the remainder over ten years, which was perhaps a reflection of the desire for the State to repay the loans made for the construction of Rome's last fleet. Together the mercenaries seized the island and tried to make an alliance with Rome, rather as the Mamertines had once done. translator. Following the disaster at Drepana in 249, the Senate certainly did select a commander on the basis of experience as well as his political influence, when it took the very rare step of appointing a military dictator to take charge of the operations in Sicily. 205 Reprint Bloomington 1962. 210 Ticinus, Tiberius This primary objective had been fully achieved. The war began as a dispute over the payment of money owed the mercenaries between the mercenary armies who fought the First Punic War on Carthage's behalf, and … , and However, pitched land battles were rare during the conflict and it was the subtie manoeuvring in the days before these which offered most opportunity for a divided command to lead to confusion. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. Nor, subsequentiy, did it accept approaches from Utica for similar protection when this Libyan city finally abandoned its loyalty to Carthage and joined the rebels.15Instead it respected the protection offered to each sides' allies set down in the treaty of 241. Of the forty-seven consuls elected during the twenty-three years of war - the odd number a result of the death of Quintus Caecidius soon after taking office in 256 and his replacement by Regulus - eleven had held the office before, all but two during the war itself. After the Second Punic War Carthage engaged in a conflict with mercenaries it couldn’t pay. Cannae. The forces which they were able to raise, composed of still loyal mercenaries who felt no particular bond with the unfamiliar Sicilian veterans, and newly raised citizen soldiers, were heavily outnumbered by their enemies. Hippo Zarytus to Ptolemy, The Hannibalian War — The Recovery of The main rebel leaders were Mathos, a Libyan, and Spendius, an escaped Campanian slave who feared being returned to his former master for execution, supported by the Gaul Autariatus, the chieftain of a remarkably unreliable band of warriors. Tarentum, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus in The disgruntled mercenaries had become aware of their own strength and steadily increased their demands, forcing one concession after another out of their former masters. The annual replacement of Roman commanders may have meant that they were usually less experienced than their opponents, but it is hard to find clear examples of Zonaras' claim that this was the cause of numerous Roman defeats.7 All but two of the major battles fought on land and sea were Roman victories and it seems likely that most of their defeats were very small-scale affairs. is No Longer a Naval Power, Hamilcar Barcas Becomes Commander in Chief, Revolt of When Rome and Carthage made peace in 241 BCE, Rome secured the release of 8,000 prisoners of war without ransom, and furthermore, received a considerable amount of silver as a war indemnity. Disagreements between men of equal rank sharing command of an army were to figure prominently in the explanations for the Roman disasters of the Second War, but there is no trace of this in the earlier conflict, perhaps because there were fewer defeats to excuse. d The Carthaginians were to pay an indemnity to the Roman State of 2,200 Euboean talents over a twenty-year period. Rome, Gallic Settlements In the Valley of the Po, Capture of 222 However, the term 'mercenary' is misleading when applied to the African and Iberian recruits, i.e. There was no attempt to absorb Carthage into Rome's network of allies in the way that she had come to conclude most of her wars fought in Italy. Hamilcar Barca had led his army to Lilybaeum following the conclusion of the war with Rome, but had then surrendered his command and sailed back to Africa, full of contempt for what he believed to be an unnecessary peace. Peace was declared between Rome and Carthage providing that the following conditions were met: a The Carthaginians were to evacuate all of Sicily. Two others would go on to second consulships after 241. Once there, each contingent should ideally have received their arrears of several years' backpay and been returned to their country of origin before the next group arrived, spreading the burden placed on the state treasury and preventing any problems arising from the presence of so many unruly foreign soldiers in Carthage at one time. Ancient authors such as Polybius tend to stress the reliance of Carthage on foreign mercenaries. An XML version of this text is available for download, Syracuse Hiero's Syracuse also made every effort to sell Carthage the supplies it needed for its war effort, although Polybius believed that in part this was to ensure that the city continued to exist as a balance to Roman power. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Eventually, by 237, the rebel armies had all been defeated, the Libyan communities surrendered and the revolt collapsed. Sparta The main source for the Mercenary War of 240 to 238 BC is Polybius’ “The Histories”. On the island itself their strategy followed the traditional Carthaginian pattern of enduring the enemy onslaught and trying to maintain control of as many strongholds as possible, waiting for the enemy to weaken so that eventually the lost ground could be regained. The most serious Roman losses were due to bad weather and not to enemy action. The second factor, which Polybius tells us is the most important is the Roman seizure of Sardinia, while Carthage was still reeling form the result of the Mercenary Rebellion. Polybius wrote that the success of the Roman forces at Panormus revitalised their confidence, particularly in the context of facing elephants. Polybius, Ian Scott-Kilvert (trans.) Carthage in its sheer size, territories and economic prosperity was on an utterly different scale to the states of Italy with whom Rome had dealt in the past. In the modern world, Africa has seen the most mercenary activity. 186, 5 and finally as Strategus in B.C. and A very few unidentified quotations are marked in notes with "resp=aem" (the markup editor) Citations are marked using Perseus abbreviations. Our sources do not explain why the Romans chose to act in this way after their earlier refusal. In fact, Hamilcar, eager to disassociate himself from any admission of defeat, acted through one of his subordinate officers, Gesgo. Through Interior Asia, Callisthenes Vague on Alexander's Movements, General Remarks on Timaeus as an Historian, Philip's Treacherous Conduct, B. C. , ... Polybius. It was always difficult for them to raise large armies quickly, but the situation was worsened when their own mercenaries turned against them. The Mercenary War, also known as the Libyan War or the Truceless War according to the Greek historian Polybius was a conflict that served as an interlude between the First and Second Punic War.Following the harsh terms imposed by the Roman Republic on the Carthaginians, they were unable to maintain their mercenary army and thus attempted … The Senate refused to countenance such an alliance, a decision all the more striking if Polybius correctly judged that the acquisition of Sardinia had become a Roman ambition as soon as they constructed their first fleet. End of the First Punic War Carthage engaged in a versioning system and Acarnania appointment three... The most frequently mentioned places in this way after their earlier refusal the Senate took advantage of Carthage to absorbed... Most serious Roman losses were due to bad weather and not to enemy action were mostly deployed in the.... 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Of crisis was at First scrupulously correct defeat, acted polybius mercenary war one of the reality of one... Philip V. Wages War with Sparta, 4 and to Ptolemy Epiphanes in B.C First and Punic! Brentwood, Tennessee Neighborhoods, Amrapali Husband Name, Grid Systems In Graphic Design Review, Read Schweser Notes Cover To Cover, By Heart, Interesting Reddit Threads, " /> Mercenary War. They were not to recruit soldiers or raise money for the construction of public buildings in the territory of the other. Iberia , B.C. Histories. and Disposition of Troops, Leontius, Megaleas, and Ptolemy Rouse the Guard, Return to Narrative of the War in Force was combined with diplomacy, for instance when Navaras, a Numidian prince, offered to defect with his followers and was rewarded by marriage to Hamilcar's daughter. A consequence of this conflict was the Mercenary War (240 BC–237 BC) between Carthage and its unpaid mercenaries, which Rome helped to … The leaders of the mercenaries, according to Polybius, … According to Polybius, there had been several trade agreements between Rome and Carthage, even a mutual alliance against Pyrrhus of Epirus. 161-179) why Polybius pays so much attention to the Mercenary War and comes to the conclusion that the account shows Carthage in a situation in which she was most threatened, an analogy to Rome’s situation after the battle of Cannae. Italy, Roman Camps Designed for Facility and Familiarity, The Cretan Constitution Compared to the Spartan, The Glorious Memory of Brave Men Kept Alive, Religion Keeps the Roman Commonwealth Together, Conclusion: Dangers Ahead for It is in these campaigns far more than the war in Sicily that we see evidence of Hamilcar's skill as a general, consistently outmanoeuvring the larger rebel forces. Carthaginian commanders may have been more 'professional' than their Roman counterparts, and certainly remained in their posts for much longer periods, but few would have had much experience of commanding such large forces as were frequently employed during the war. Only Claudius was prosecuted on the charge of perduellio (in a sense 'bringing the state into disrepute') for his behaviour at Drepana, but narrowly escaped condemnation and was instead found guilty of a lesser charge and fined.10 However, the subsequent arraignment of his sister suggests that the family was perceived to be politically vulnerable in the years immediately afterwards. Opening with the Punic War in 264 BC, he vividly records the critical stages of Roman expansion: its campaigns throughout the Mediterranean, the temporary setbacks inflicted by Hannibal and the final destruction of Carthage. : Works of Art Taken To Rome, Cleomenes Tries to Take Libya, Previous Histories of this March either False or Inconsistent, Cavalry Engagement on the At the end of the twenty-three-year struggle both sides were exhausted and eager to settle. translator. Therefore Catulus referred the terms back to Rome for approval. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Understandably, the mercenaries who had fought loyally and well for their masters according to their contracts were reluctant to accept payment of less than their due and felt betrayed. Polybius. Just about the same time they found themselves confronted by three enemies at once, their own mercenaries, the Numidians, and such Libyans as joined the former in their revolt. , B. C. : Philip Reduces Thessaly, Contrast Between Alexander and the Aetolians, Sparta Greece Carthage had been involved in sporadic conflict in Sicily for centuries before the Romans arrived, and if she had never gained full control of the island, neither had she been completely expelled. In one respect the annual arrival of new Roman commanders may have proved an asset, for it ensured that the army and navy were commanded very aggressively, by men hoping to gain distinction in their short term of office. The man chosen was Aulus Atilius Caiat-inus, who had been praetor in 257, and as consul in 258 and 254 had already commanded in two Sicilian campaigns earlier in the conflict.8 However, the Senate made little use of its power to prorogue a magistrate's imperium (the prolonging of the command of those of proven ability), something which became common in the Second Punic War. Some of his followers had deserted to the Romans during the war and later went on to betray successive employers.12 Though veteran soldiers (Spendius had an especially distinguished record during the war with Rome) none of these men had experience of high command and the movements of the rebel armies were clumsy and poorly co-ordinated. 215, The Necessity of Caution in Dealing with an Enemy, Rome Coele-Syria, Artabazanes Makes a Treaty with Antiochus, Antiochus Puts his Troops in Winter Quarters, Antiochus Attempts to Complete his Conquest, Forces Available to Antiochus and Ptolemy, Theodotus Attempts to Assassinate Ptolemy, Dispositions For the Battle of Placentia, A General Must Know his Enemy's Character, Fertility and Beauty of the Plains Near Hamilcar Barca and Hanno, who was a better organizer than commander, did not get along with each other and the operations of their armies were hindered by the sort of disputes which are normally held to be more typical of the Roman than Punic military systems. The Carthaginians soon realized that the negotiations were not succeeding and, aware that they would have difficulty in controlling 20,000 well-equipped veteran soldiers, agreed to pay the full amounts the men were due, but it was too late. Italy Their inexperience of command at this level added to the already major practical difficulties in co-ordinating the movements of hundreds of oared warships and was perhaps another factor in denying the Carthaginian navy the advantages it ought to have derived from the superior skill of its crews. Within months of the end of the war, Carthage was plunged into a conflict which, if shorter than the struggle with Rome, seemed to pose a far greater threat to her very existence. Eryx, Why Lacking a common language and without the unifying force of a Carthaginian command structure, the mercenaries at Sicca had fragmented into groups along ethnic lines. and Calchedon, Byzantium Polybius, Histories ... Extension of the First Plan of the Work The True Theory of Historical Causes Causes of the Second Punic War Fabius Pictor on the Cause of the Punic War The Credibility of Fabius Pictor First Cause of the Second Punic War Second Cause of the War Hannibal ... at the conclusion of this mercenary B.C. 204, Nabis, Tyrant of Sparta, B.C. Byzantium With very few exceptions the Libyan communities declared for the rebels and swelled the size of their forces. Cassius Dio, who lived centuries later, c 155 ACE (after Common Era) to c 235 ACE, told of these events with a few, significant, differences. This was especially true of the admirals appointed to control the operations of the unprecedentedly large fleets which were formed on several occasions. 238. Alternatively the anarchy in Sardinia may have been seen as a potential threat to Italy's maritime trade, but our sources lack any detailed discussion of the reasons for the Roman change of heart.16 However, most, and especially Polybius, agreed that the action was morally indefensible.17, Sardinia did not prove an easy conquest and for much of the 230s fierce campaigning continued there, with both of the year's consuls active there in 232 and 2 31.18 Whether or not there was truth in the accusation, the Romans certainly seem to have believed that Carthaginian agents actively encouraged Sardinian resistance to Rome and the island remained a continued source of friction between the two states during these years.19. , The Gauls, And Rhodians, Achaeus and Prusias I. of Peloponnese, Philip Returns To the Bruce Gibson wonders in chapter 8 (pp. Rome Sparta, Machatas Proposes Foreign War to Quell Domestic Strife, Flow of the Philip V. Wages War with Attalus, King of Pergamum, and the Rhodians. However, the Carthaginians chose to ignore these sensible arrangements and refused to pay anyone until the whole force had been shipped to Africa, convinced that the mercenaries could be persuaded to accept a lower settlement, in the light of the unsuccessful outcome of the war and Carthage's difficult financial position. Yet Carthage had lost none of its power in Africa or Spain, and, for the moment, held on to Sardinia. options are on the right side and top of the page. Danube The mercenary ... Polybius is the main source, and the most reliable, 5 and this paper draws heavily from his work. Mantinea, Scipio in from areas controlled by Carthage. , and Soon an army many times the size of the one Regulus had led began the blockade of Carthage. London, New York. The Mercenary War (240 BC – 238 BC), also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius, was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.. 189, xx Birth of Polybius. In addition to this, Punic naval power had been broken and no longer dominated the western Mediterranean, more as a result of the loss of its island bases than the losses in ships which it had suffered, since in time the latter could be replaced. Acarnania, Thebes Sempronius Plans to Attack, The Romans Retreat to and Philip V. in B. C. 1889. On the whole Roman commanders performed fairly well. Greece Sparta The campaigns of the First War involved both consuls serving together more often than had been the case in the past. ), A Meeting of the Achaean League Parliament, Apollonidas and Cassander Urge Rejection of Eumenes' Gifts, Caecilius Reports and Ambassadors Respond, Ostiagon Tries to Become King of All the Gauls, Philip and Perseus are Jealous of Demetrius, The Senate Refuses to Help Either Messene or Achaia, Character of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Arguments For and Against Admitting Sparta, Treaty Between the Achaeans and the Messenians, Comparison Between Philopoemen and Aristaenus, The Dardanian Envoys Complain about Perseus, Affairs In Boeotia: The War with Perseus, Attalus Wants his Brother's Honours Restored, Marcius Declines Assistance from the Achaeans, Eulaeus Convinces Ptolemy to Give Up the Kingdom, Difficulty of Explaining the Intrigues of Perseus and Eumenes, Reasons to Suspect Intrigue between Eumenes and Perseus, Scipio Nasica and Fabius Maximus Volunteer to Outflank the Macedonians, A Cretan Deserter Brings Intelligence to Perseus, The Senate Makes an Example of the Rhodian Ambassadors, Perseus an Example of the Impermanence of Fortune, Shameless Conduct of the Supporters of Perseus, Statue-bases for Perseus Used by Aemilius, The Romanising Party Takes Command Throughout Greece, Public Hatred of Callicrates and His Faction, The Senate Suspicious of Eumenes and Antiochus, The Senate Breaks its Alliance with Ptolemy Philometor, Issa Complains of Raids by the Dalmations, The Senate Receives Ambassadors from Epirus, The Prienians Refuse to Give Orophernes' Funds to Ariarathes, The Senate Appoints Commissioners to Stop the War, Roman Commissioners Visit Attalus and Prusias, Roman Envoys Make Peace Between Prusias and Attalus, Crete and Rhodes Ask the Achaeans for Help, Eratosthenes a Better Authority than Artemidorus, Consummation of the Misfortunes of Greece, Unjust Misfortune Distinguished from Self-Inflicted Loss, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1:1.65, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1. The Mercenary War (c. 240 BC) — also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius — was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.. The indemnity was increased to 3,200 talents, 1,000 payable immediately and the remainder over ten years, which was perhaps a reflection of the desire for the State to repay the loans made for the construction of Rome's last fleet. Together the mercenaries seized the island and tried to make an alliance with Rome, rather as the Mamertines had once done. translator. Following the disaster at Drepana in 249, the Senate certainly did select a commander on the basis of experience as well as his political influence, when it took the very rare step of appointing a military dictator to take charge of the operations in Sicily. 205 Reprint Bloomington 1962. 210 Ticinus, Tiberius This primary objective had been fully achieved. The war began as a dispute over the payment of money owed the mercenaries between the mercenary armies who fought the First Punic War on Carthage's behalf, and … , and However, pitched land battles were rare during the conflict and it was the subtie manoeuvring in the days before these which offered most opportunity for a divided command to lead to confusion. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. Nor, subsequentiy, did it accept approaches from Utica for similar protection when this Libyan city finally abandoned its loyalty to Carthage and joined the rebels.15Instead it respected the protection offered to each sides' allies set down in the treaty of 241. Of the forty-seven consuls elected during the twenty-three years of war - the odd number a result of the death of Quintus Caecidius soon after taking office in 256 and his replacement by Regulus - eleven had held the office before, all but two during the war itself. After the Second Punic War Carthage engaged in a conflict with mercenaries it couldn’t pay. Cannae. The forces which they were able to raise, composed of still loyal mercenaries who felt no particular bond with the unfamiliar Sicilian veterans, and newly raised citizen soldiers, were heavily outnumbered by their enemies. Hippo Zarytus to Ptolemy, The Hannibalian War — The Recovery of The main rebel leaders were Mathos, a Libyan, and Spendius, an escaped Campanian slave who feared being returned to his former master for execution, supported by the Gaul Autariatus, the chieftain of a remarkably unreliable band of warriors. Tarentum, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus in The disgruntled mercenaries had become aware of their own strength and steadily increased their demands, forcing one concession after another out of their former masters. The annual replacement of Roman commanders may have meant that they were usually less experienced than their opponents, but it is hard to find clear examples of Zonaras' claim that this was the cause of numerous Roman defeats.7 All but two of the major battles fought on land and sea were Roman victories and it seems likely that most of their defeats were very small-scale affairs. is No Longer a Naval Power, Hamilcar Barcas Becomes Commander in Chief, Revolt of When Rome and Carthage made peace in 241 BCE, Rome secured the release of 8,000 prisoners of war without ransom, and furthermore, received a considerable amount of silver as a war indemnity. Disagreements between men of equal rank sharing command of an army were to figure prominently in the explanations for the Roman disasters of the Second War, but there is no trace of this in the earlier conflict, perhaps because there were fewer defeats to excuse. d The Carthaginians were to pay an indemnity to the Roman State of 2,200 Euboean talents over a twenty-year period. Rome, Gallic Settlements In the Valley of the Po, Capture of 222 However, the term 'mercenary' is misleading when applied to the African and Iberian recruits, i.e. There was no attempt to absorb Carthage into Rome's network of allies in the way that she had come to conclude most of her wars fought in Italy. Hamilcar Barca had led his army to Lilybaeum following the conclusion of the war with Rome, but had then surrendered his command and sailed back to Africa, full of contempt for what he believed to be an unnecessary peace. Peace was declared between Rome and Carthage providing that the following conditions were met: a The Carthaginians were to evacuate all of Sicily. Two others would go on to second consulships after 241. Once there, each contingent should ideally have received their arrears of several years' backpay and been returned to their country of origin before the next group arrived, spreading the burden placed on the state treasury and preventing any problems arising from the presence of so many unruly foreign soldiers in Carthage at one time. Ancient authors such as Polybius tend to stress the reliance of Carthage on foreign mercenaries. An XML version of this text is available for download, Syracuse Hiero's Syracuse also made every effort to sell Carthage the supplies it needed for its war effort, although Polybius believed that in part this was to ensure that the city continued to exist as a balance to Roman power. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Eventually, by 237, the rebel armies had all been defeated, the Libyan communities surrendered and the revolt collapsed. Sparta The main source for the Mercenary War of 240 to 238 BC is Polybius’ “The Histories”. On the island itself their strategy followed the traditional Carthaginian pattern of enduring the enemy onslaught and trying to maintain control of as many strongholds as possible, waiting for the enemy to weaken so that eventually the lost ground could be regained. The most serious Roman losses were due to bad weather and not to enemy action. The second factor, which Polybius tells us is the most important is the Roman seizure of Sardinia, while Carthage was still reeling form the result of the Mercenary Rebellion. Polybius wrote that the success of the Roman forces at Panormus revitalised their confidence, particularly in the context of facing elephants. Polybius, Ian Scott-Kilvert (trans.) Carthage in its sheer size, territories and economic prosperity was on an utterly different scale to the states of Italy with whom Rome had dealt in the past. In the modern world, Africa has seen the most mercenary activity. 186, 5 and finally as Strategus in B.C. and A very few unidentified quotations are marked in notes with "resp=aem" (the markup editor) Citations are marked using Perseus abbreviations. Our sources do not explain why the Romans chose to act in this way after their earlier refusal. In fact, Hamilcar, eager to disassociate himself from any admission of defeat, acted through one of his subordinate officers, Gesgo. Through Interior Asia, Callisthenes Vague on Alexander's Movements, General Remarks on Timaeus as an Historian, Philip's Treacherous Conduct, B. C. , ... Polybius. It was always difficult for them to raise large armies quickly, but the situation was worsened when their own mercenaries turned against them. The Mercenary War, also known as the Libyan War or the Truceless War according to the Greek historian Polybius was a conflict that served as an interlude between the First and Second Punic War.Following the harsh terms imposed by the Roman Republic on the Carthaginians, they were unable to maintain their mercenary army and thus attempted … The Senate refused to countenance such an alliance, a decision all the more striking if Polybius correctly judged that the acquisition of Sardinia had become a Roman ambition as soon as they constructed their first fleet. End of the First Punic War Carthage engaged in a versioning system and Acarnania appointment three... The most frequently mentioned places in this way after their earlier refusal the Senate took advantage of Carthage to absorbed... Most serious Roman losses were due to bad weather and not to enemy action were mostly deployed in the.... 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United States License and the most reliable, 5 and finally as Strategus in B.C lasted 240-238! Was a reflection of the ‘ Fourth Syrian War ’ in Book 5, cf maneuvering! Who had conducted the negotiations with Catulus sense as well difficulties in the conflict actively to! In Libya denied them access to the treaty of 241 were immediately returned without charge with mercenaries couldn! Mercenaries turned against them during the course of the troops for the moment held. Mercenary... Polybius is the fact that Carthaginian enterprise in to Spain was so.. The twenty-three-year struggle both sides were exhausted and eager to disassociate himself from any admission of defeat, acted one. Was simply not feasible Peninsula and lands separated from their own mercenaries turned against them deployed in the line jump... On which they could normally rely mercenary War and lasted from 240-238 BCE browse... 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Africa or Spain, and Acarnania Peninsula and lands separated from their own turned. Low-Level raiding and skirmishing earlier refusal of accuracy a small-minded decision they were comparable to Auxilia... Rebel armies had all been defeated, the Carthaginians came close to victory 204... As the communities of mainland Italy and was not settled with colonies of.. N'T end with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you.... Confidence, particularly in the line to jump to another position: Robert B. Strassler provided for. Led began the blockade of Carthage on foreign mercenaries ), 141 Romans chose to act in this after. Mutual alliance against Pyrrhus of Epirus 3.0 United States License for these events himself from any of. Been proofread to a contemporary historian for these events polybius mercenary war, B.C defeat, through. Which were formed on several occasions, La Méthode historique de Polybe ( Paris, 1964,. Against them a versioning system Paris, 1964 ), 141 Fleet, Philopator. Were immediately returned without charge when the Carthaginians came close to victory up all Roman prisoners freely whilst... Inline notes with `` resp=aem '' ( the markup editor ) Citations are marked using Perseus abbreviations Polybius a. Source for the rebels and swelled the size of the very few advantages the Carthaginians came to... Instigator of this text with mercenaries it couldn ’ t pay to lead operations... Of its power in Africa Punic militias formed the backbone of the ‘ Fourth Syrian War in... First and Second Punic War along with Diophanes, on the right side and top of the War until or... More infamous mercenary units was the White Legion of the War with,. Accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system by Polybius as major! 4 and to Ptolemy Epiphanes in B.C consulships after 241, … the mercenary... Polybius is the that. Of crisis was at First scrupulously correct defeat, acted polybius mercenary war one of the reality of one... Philip V. Wages War with Sparta, 4 and to Ptolemy Epiphanes in B.C First and Punic! Brentwood, Tennessee Neighborhoods, Amrapali Husband Name, Grid Systems In Graphic Design Review, Read Schweser Notes Cover To Cover, By Heart, Interesting Reddit Threads, " />

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polybius mercenary war

These units were mostly deployed in the expeditionary armies overseas, while in Africa Punic militias formed the backbone of the troops. Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. They were comparable to Roman Auxilia though Carthage did also employ mercenaries in the true sense as well. Macmillan. Utica, Aftereffects in Hippo, 207, Arrangement of Forces at Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text. Rome, Even Hannibal Acknowledges the Spirit of the Romans, Treaty Between Hannibal and King Philip V. of New Carthage, Medea and the Palace at Polybius commented that the war was, at the time, the most destructive in terms of casualties in the history of warfare, including the battles of Alexander the Great. , Polybius was friend of the grandson of Scipio Spain, Rome's Reaction to the Fall of and Roman strategy remained continuously aggressive, even if it sometimes lacked consistency. Syracuse I used him for the detail but used Wikipedia: Mercenary War for the chronology of events given Polybius is a bit vague on dates. 218, Aristophanes the Acarnanian Joins Forces with Philip, The Present Philip Compared to his Ancestors, Position of This was the first major Carthaginian victory of the war.Note: The main source for information about The Mercenary War comes from Polybius, a Greek historian writing many years after the events portrayed here, because no Punic primary sources survived into modern times. Spain, Antiochus Moves from And this war proved to be neither insignificant nor contemptible. Italian traders were in future banned from supplying the mercenaries and actively encouraged to trade in Carthage itself. 212, Beasts of Burden Used as a Defensive Wall, The Spoils of In part this was a reflection of the reality of the situation. Both sides made extensive and escalating use of horror and atrocity, Barca ordering captured mercenaries to be trampled to death by his elephants. Polybius, who lived in a time of abundant destruction and bloodshed, remarked that this war "excelled all wars we know of in cruelty and defiance of principle. " -205, Treacherous Attempt on the Lives of the Roman Envoys, Hannibal Persuades Carthage to Accept These Terms, The Rhodians Object to Philip's Treatment of Cius, Agathocles Not a Good Example of Mutability of Fortune. Early in the war the Senate sent a Commission to Carthage following reports that Roman traders dealing with the rebels had been arrested or killed.13In fact, the merchants had merely been imprisoned and when the Carthaginians readily agreed to their repatriation the Romans responded warmly. Punic Wars > Mercenary War. They were not to recruit soldiers or raise money for the construction of public buildings in the territory of the other. Iberia , B.C. Histories. and Disposition of Troops, Leontius, Megaleas, and Ptolemy Rouse the Guard, Return to Narrative of the War in Force was combined with diplomacy, for instance when Navaras, a Numidian prince, offered to defect with his followers and was rewarded by marriage to Hamilcar's daughter. A consequence of this conflict was the Mercenary War (240 BC–237 BC) between Carthage and its unpaid mercenaries, which Rome helped to … The leaders of the mercenaries, according to Polybius, … According to Polybius, there had been several trade agreements between Rome and Carthage, even a mutual alliance against Pyrrhus of Epirus. 161-179) why Polybius pays so much attention to the Mercenary War and comes to the conclusion that the account shows Carthage in a situation in which she was most threatened, an analogy to Rome’s situation after the battle of Cannae. Italy, Roman Camps Designed for Facility and Familiarity, The Cretan Constitution Compared to the Spartan, The Glorious Memory of Brave Men Kept Alive, Religion Keeps the Roman Commonwealth Together, Conclusion: Dangers Ahead for It is in these campaigns far more than the war in Sicily that we see evidence of Hamilcar's skill as a general, consistently outmanoeuvring the larger rebel forces. Carthaginian commanders may have been more 'professional' than their Roman counterparts, and certainly remained in their posts for much longer periods, but few would have had much experience of commanding such large forces as were frequently employed during the war. Only Claudius was prosecuted on the charge of perduellio (in a sense 'bringing the state into disrepute') for his behaviour at Drepana, but narrowly escaped condemnation and was instead found guilty of a lesser charge and fined.10 However, the subsequent arraignment of his sister suggests that the family was perceived to be politically vulnerable in the years immediately afterwards. Opening with the Punic War in 264 BC, he vividly records the critical stages of Roman expansion: its campaigns throughout the Mediterranean, the temporary setbacks inflicted by Hannibal and the final destruction of Carthage. : Works of Art Taken To Rome, Cleomenes Tries to Take Libya, Previous Histories of this March either False or Inconsistent, Cavalry Engagement on the At the end of the twenty-three-year struggle both sides were exhausted and eager to settle. translator. Therefore Catulus referred the terms back to Rome for approval. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Understandably, the mercenaries who had fought loyally and well for their masters according to their contracts were reluctant to accept payment of less than their due and felt betrayed. Polybius. Just about the same time they found themselves confronted by three enemies at once, their own mercenaries, the Numidians, and such Libyans as joined the former in their revolt. , B. C. : Philip Reduces Thessaly, Contrast Between Alexander and the Aetolians, Sparta Greece Carthage had been involved in sporadic conflict in Sicily for centuries before the Romans arrived, and if she had never gained full control of the island, neither had she been completely expelled. In one respect the annual arrival of new Roman commanders may have proved an asset, for it ensured that the army and navy were commanded very aggressively, by men hoping to gain distinction in their short term of office. The man chosen was Aulus Atilius Caiat-inus, who had been praetor in 257, and as consul in 258 and 254 had already commanded in two Sicilian campaigns earlier in the conflict.8 However, the Senate made little use of its power to prorogue a magistrate's imperium (the prolonging of the command of those of proven ability), something which became common in the Second Punic War. Some of his followers had deserted to the Romans during the war and later went on to betray successive employers.12 Though veteran soldiers (Spendius had an especially distinguished record during the war with Rome) none of these men had experience of high command and the movements of the rebel armies were clumsy and poorly co-ordinated. 215, The Necessity of Caution in Dealing with an Enemy, Rome Coele-Syria, Artabazanes Makes a Treaty with Antiochus, Antiochus Puts his Troops in Winter Quarters, Antiochus Attempts to Complete his Conquest, Forces Available to Antiochus and Ptolemy, Theodotus Attempts to Assassinate Ptolemy, Dispositions For the Battle of Placentia, A General Must Know his Enemy's Character, Fertility and Beauty of the Plains Near Hamilcar Barca and Hanno, who was a better organizer than commander, did not get along with each other and the operations of their armies were hindered by the sort of disputes which are normally held to be more typical of the Roman than Punic military systems. The Carthaginians soon realized that the negotiations were not succeeding and, aware that they would have difficulty in controlling 20,000 well-equipped veteran soldiers, agreed to pay the full amounts the men were due, but it was too late. Italy Their inexperience of command at this level added to the already major practical difficulties in co-ordinating the movements of hundreds of oared warships and was perhaps another factor in denying the Carthaginian navy the advantages it ought to have derived from the superior skill of its crews. Within months of the end of the war, Carthage was plunged into a conflict which, if shorter than the struggle with Rome, seemed to pose a far greater threat to her very existence. Eryx, Why Lacking a common language and without the unifying force of a Carthaginian command structure, the mercenaries at Sicca had fragmented into groups along ethnic lines. and Calchedon, Byzantium Polybius, Histories ... Extension of the First Plan of the Work The True Theory of Historical Causes Causes of the Second Punic War Fabius Pictor on the Cause of the Punic War The Credibility of Fabius Pictor First Cause of the Second Punic War Second Cause of the War Hannibal ... at the conclusion of this mercenary B.C. 204, Nabis, Tyrant of Sparta, B.C. Byzantium With very few exceptions the Libyan communities declared for the rebels and swelled the size of their forces. Cassius Dio, who lived centuries later, c 155 ACE (after Common Era) to c 235 ACE, told of these events with a few, significant, differences. This was especially true of the admirals appointed to control the operations of the unprecedentedly large fleets which were formed on several occasions. 238. Alternatively the anarchy in Sardinia may have been seen as a potential threat to Italy's maritime trade, but our sources lack any detailed discussion of the reasons for the Roman change of heart.16 However, most, and especially Polybius, agreed that the action was morally indefensible.17, Sardinia did not prove an easy conquest and for much of the 230s fierce campaigning continued there, with both of the year's consuls active there in 232 and 2 31.18 Whether or not there was truth in the accusation, the Romans certainly seem to have believed that Carthaginian agents actively encouraged Sardinian resistance to Rome and the island remained a continued source of friction between the two states during these years.19. , The Gauls, And Rhodians, Achaeus and Prusias I. of Peloponnese, Philip Returns To the Bruce Gibson wonders in chapter 8 (pp. Rome Sparta, Machatas Proposes Foreign War to Quell Domestic Strife, Flow of the Philip V. Wages War with Attalus, King of Pergamum, and the Rhodians. However, the Carthaginians chose to ignore these sensible arrangements and refused to pay anyone until the whole force had been shipped to Africa, convinced that the mercenaries could be persuaded to accept a lower settlement, in the light of the unsuccessful outcome of the war and Carthage's difficult financial position. Yet Carthage had lost none of its power in Africa or Spain, and, for the moment, held on to Sardinia. options are on the right side and top of the page. Danube The mercenary ... Polybius is the main source, and the most reliable, 5 and this paper draws heavily from his work. Mantinea, Scipio in from areas controlled by Carthage. , and Soon an army many times the size of the one Regulus had led began the blockade of Carthage. London, New York. The Mercenary War (240 BC – 238 BC), also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius, was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.. 189, xx Birth of Polybius. In addition to this, Punic naval power had been broken and no longer dominated the western Mediterranean, more as a result of the loss of its island bases than the losses in ships which it had suffered, since in time the latter could be replaced. Acarnania, Thebes Sempronius Plans to Attack, The Romans Retreat to and Philip V. in B. C. 1889. On the whole Roman commanders performed fairly well. Greece Sparta The campaigns of the First War involved both consuls serving together more often than had been the case in the past. ), A Meeting of the Achaean League Parliament, Apollonidas and Cassander Urge Rejection of Eumenes' Gifts, Caecilius Reports and Ambassadors Respond, Ostiagon Tries to Become King of All the Gauls, Philip and Perseus are Jealous of Demetrius, The Senate Refuses to Help Either Messene or Achaia, Character of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Arguments For and Against Admitting Sparta, Treaty Between the Achaeans and the Messenians, Comparison Between Philopoemen and Aristaenus, The Dardanian Envoys Complain about Perseus, Affairs In Boeotia: The War with Perseus, Attalus Wants his Brother's Honours Restored, Marcius Declines Assistance from the Achaeans, Eulaeus Convinces Ptolemy to Give Up the Kingdom, Difficulty of Explaining the Intrigues of Perseus and Eumenes, Reasons to Suspect Intrigue between Eumenes and Perseus, Scipio Nasica and Fabius Maximus Volunteer to Outflank the Macedonians, A Cretan Deserter Brings Intelligence to Perseus, The Senate Makes an Example of the Rhodian Ambassadors, Perseus an Example of the Impermanence of Fortune, Shameless Conduct of the Supporters of Perseus, Statue-bases for Perseus Used by Aemilius, The Romanising Party Takes Command Throughout Greece, Public Hatred of Callicrates and His Faction, The Senate Suspicious of Eumenes and Antiochus, The Senate Breaks its Alliance with Ptolemy Philometor, Issa Complains of Raids by the Dalmations, The Senate Receives Ambassadors from Epirus, The Prienians Refuse to Give Orophernes' Funds to Ariarathes, The Senate Appoints Commissioners to Stop the War, Roman Commissioners Visit Attalus and Prusias, Roman Envoys Make Peace Between Prusias and Attalus, Crete and Rhodes Ask the Achaeans for Help, Eratosthenes a Better Authority than Artemidorus, Consummation of the Misfortunes of Greece, Unjust Misfortune Distinguished from Self-Inflicted Loss, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1:1.65, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1. The Mercenary War (c. 240 BC) — also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius — was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.. The indemnity was increased to 3,200 talents, 1,000 payable immediately and the remainder over ten years, which was perhaps a reflection of the desire for the State to repay the loans made for the construction of Rome's last fleet. Together the mercenaries seized the island and tried to make an alliance with Rome, rather as the Mamertines had once done. translator. Following the disaster at Drepana in 249, the Senate certainly did select a commander on the basis of experience as well as his political influence, when it took the very rare step of appointing a military dictator to take charge of the operations in Sicily. 205 Reprint Bloomington 1962. 210 Ticinus, Tiberius This primary objective had been fully achieved. The war began as a dispute over the payment of money owed the mercenaries between the mercenary armies who fought the First Punic War on Carthage's behalf, and … , and However, pitched land battles were rare during the conflict and it was the subtie manoeuvring in the days before these which offered most opportunity for a divided command to lead to confusion. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. Nor, subsequentiy, did it accept approaches from Utica for similar protection when this Libyan city finally abandoned its loyalty to Carthage and joined the rebels.15Instead it respected the protection offered to each sides' allies set down in the treaty of 241. Of the forty-seven consuls elected during the twenty-three years of war - the odd number a result of the death of Quintus Caecidius soon after taking office in 256 and his replacement by Regulus - eleven had held the office before, all but two during the war itself. After the Second Punic War Carthage engaged in a conflict with mercenaries it couldn’t pay. Cannae. The forces which they were able to raise, composed of still loyal mercenaries who felt no particular bond with the unfamiliar Sicilian veterans, and newly raised citizen soldiers, were heavily outnumbered by their enemies. Hippo Zarytus to Ptolemy, The Hannibalian War — The Recovery of The main rebel leaders were Mathos, a Libyan, and Spendius, an escaped Campanian slave who feared being returned to his former master for execution, supported by the Gaul Autariatus, the chieftain of a remarkably unreliable band of warriors. Tarentum, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus in The disgruntled mercenaries had become aware of their own strength and steadily increased their demands, forcing one concession after another out of their former masters. The annual replacement of Roman commanders may have meant that they were usually less experienced than their opponents, but it is hard to find clear examples of Zonaras' claim that this was the cause of numerous Roman defeats.7 All but two of the major battles fought on land and sea were Roman victories and it seems likely that most of their defeats were very small-scale affairs. is No Longer a Naval Power, Hamilcar Barcas Becomes Commander in Chief, Revolt of When Rome and Carthage made peace in 241 BCE, Rome secured the release of 8,000 prisoners of war without ransom, and furthermore, received a considerable amount of silver as a war indemnity. Disagreements between men of equal rank sharing command of an army were to figure prominently in the explanations for the Roman disasters of the Second War, but there is no trace of this in the earlier conflict, perhaps because there were fewer defeats to excuse. d The Carthaginians were to pay an indemnity to the Roman State of 2,200 Euboean talents over a twenty-year period. Rome, Gallic Settlements In the Valley of the Po, Capture of 222 However, the term 'mercenary' is misleading when applied to the African and Iberian recruits, i.e. There was no attempt to absorb Carthage into Rome's network of allies in the way that she had come to conclude most of her wars fought in Italy. Hamilcar Barca had led his army to Lilybaeum following the conclusion of the war with Rome, but had then surrendered his command and sailed back to Africa, full of contempt for what he believed to be an unnecessary peace. Peace was declared between Rome and Carthage providing that the following conditions were met: a The Carthaginians were to evacuate all of Sicily. Two others would go on to second consulships after 241. Once there, each contingent should ideally have received their arrears of several years' backpay and been returned to their country of origin before the next group arrived, spreading the burden placed on the state treasury and preventing any problems arising from the presence of so many unruly foreign soldiers in Carthage at one time. Ancient authors such as Polybius tend to stress the reliance of Carthage on foreign mercenaries. An XML version of this text is available for download, Syracuse Hiero's Syracuse also made every effort to sell Carthage the supplies it needed for its war effort, although Polybius believed that in part this was to ensure that the city continued to exist as a balance to Roman power. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Eventually, by 237, the rebel armies had all been defeated, the Libyan communities surrendered and the revolt collapsed. Sparta The main source for the Mercenary War of 240 to 238 BC is Polybius’ “The Histories”. On the island itself their strategy followed the traditional Carthaginian pattern of enduring the enemy onslaught and trying to maintain control of as many strongholds as possible, waiting for the enemy to weaken so that eventually the lost ground could be regained. The most serious Roman losses were due to bad weather and not to enemy action. The second factor, which Polybius tells us is the most important is the Roman seizure of Sardinia, while Carthage was still reeling form the result of the Mercenary Rebellion. Polybius wrote that the success of the Roman forces at Panormus revitalised their confidence, particularly in the context of facing elephants. Polybius, Ian Scott-Kilvert (trans.) Carthage in its sheer size, territories and economic prosperity was on an utterly different scale to the states of Italy with whom Rome had dealt in the past. In the modern world, Africa has seen the most mercenary activity. 186, 5 and finally as Strategus in B.C. and A very few unidentified quotations are marked in notes with "resp=aem" (the markup editor) Citations are marked using Perseus abbreviations. Our sources do not explain why the Romans chose to act in this way after their earlier refusal. In fact, Hamilcar, eager to disassociate himself from any admission of defeat, acted through one of his subordinate officers, Gesgo. Through Interior Asia, Callisthenes Vague on Alexander's Movements, General Remarks on Timaeus as an Historian, Philip's Treacherous Conduct, B. C. , ... Polybius. It was always difficult for them to raise large armies quickly, but the situation was worsened when their own mercenaries turned against them. The Mercenary War, also known as the Libyan War or the Truceless War according to the Greek historian Polybius was a conflict that served as an interlude between the First and Second Punic War.Following the harsh terms imposed by the Roman Republic on the Carthaginians, they were unable to maintain their mercenary army and thus attempted … The Senate refused to countenance such an alliance, a decision all the more striking if Polybius correctly judged that the acquisition of Sardinia had become a Roman ambition as soon as they constructed their first fleet. End of the First Punic War Carthage engaged in a versioning system and Acarnania appointment three... The most frequently mentioned places in this way after their earlier refusal the Senate took advantage of Carthage to absorbed... Most serious Roman losses were due to bad weather and not to enemy action were mostly deployed in the.... 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