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1938 yellow river flood causes

[3], The number of casualties in the flood remains disputed and estimates have been revised by the Chinese government and other researchers in the decades after the event. Great Leap famine, 1958-62 (Urban Perspective) Lauri Paltemaa. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Ecology of War in China Henan Province, the Yellow River, and Beyond, 1938–1950. Marjaana Mäenpää The rain increased into July and August of 1931. Unable to fully decide which group deserved more blame for the catastrophe, the Chinese Government or the invading Japanese, many survivors blamed both sides. These three floods collectively killed millions and are considered to be the three deadliest floods in history and among the most destructive natural disasters ever recorded. On average two occur per year. did affect Japanese capability to consolidate control over Chinese territories, but also flooded 5,000 villages and eleven major cities. Casualties: Close to a million Chinese peasants died or starved How much damage (in land)? In the shifting battles between bandits, Nationalists, Communists, and Japanese, counting casualties was not a high priority. 1082337951. The Yellow River Flood of 1938, though contested on its effectiveness. Their advance on Zhengzhou was halted, but they took Wuhan in October by attacking from a different direction. Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Military history of China (disambiguation), https://military.wikia.org/wiki/1938_Yellow_River_flood?oldid=5263157. Thousands of villages were inundated or destroyed and several million villagers driven from their homes and made refugees. By 1938, keeping the nation from falling completely under Japanese domination had become one of two goals that defined Chiang’s career, the other … Afterwards, the government wasn’t able to organize enough relief efforts. The main reason for flooding was due to landslides caused by an earthquake in the Nanga Parbat region. An earlier flood in September–October 1887 is thought to have killed 900,000 to 2,000,000 residents; a third, on June 9, 1938, was responsible for 500,000 to 900,000 deaths. "The Largest Act of Environmental Warfare in History". High rain fall caused the Yellow River to overtop its banks leading to a widespread flood and the deaths of 900,000. Casualties: Close to a million Chinese peasants died or starved How much damage (in land)? Silt-retaining dams have not been completely effective (the accumulation of silt reduces the power-generating capacity of the dams), and they have been criticized by environmentalists. [3], The breach in the dam became such a major rallying point for the Communists that they actually tried to halt an attempt by the Chinese Government, with the assistance of the UN, to seal the breach. The estimates of the number of people killed by the flood (and the ensuing disease and famine) range from 850,000 to 4,000,000, making it by most estimates the deadliest natural disaster in recorded history. The second-deadliest flood in human history (after 1931’s Yangtze River floods) had occurred on the Yellow River in 1887, when heavy rainfall caused breaches in over 2,000 feet of dikes near Zhengzhou, drowning some 900,000. [3], The destruction also had an adverse effect on the Chinese population. Disaster: Manmade 1938 Yellow River Flood Japan vs China War Estimated 500,000 Innocents Died. pp. The government, after initially claiming that the breach was caused by Japanese bombing, used the heavy casualties to demonstrate the scale of sacrifice required of the Chinese people. Note: Some of these floods and landslides may be partially caused by humans – for example, by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls. The Communist Pa… a flood that happens very quickly in low-lying land, and it's usually caused by very heavy rains Heavy snowstorms in the winter were followed by spring thaw/defrost with heavy rains that raised the river levels even higher. Chapter; Aa; Aa; Get access. By the 1940s they had evolved into a major guerrilla base known as the Yuwansu Base Area. Rivers flood. Li Yizhi (1882–1938) stressed that the sediment from the middle reaches of the Yellow River was the source of the flood disasters and he believed that integrated measures including the use of “water gate” by Wang Jing (30 A.D.–85 A.D.) was the main reason that guaranteed the 800 yr of Yellow River … MANILA — A local official and a scientist have offered explanations as to why Cagayan province frequently experiences intense flooding. There is no way of accurately assessing the casualties: much of the population, including officials had already fled, leaving no government control and no one to count the dead. Close behind is the 1887 flood, which killed anywhere from 900,000 to 2 million people, and a 1931 flood (part of a massive number of floods that year) that killed 1–4 million people. Wenchuan earthquake, 2008. Dili xuebao [Geography journal] 19 :2 (December), 234 –244. The rains produced with the hurricane took a minor or moderate flood and resulted in the major flooding that occurred in 1938. In this year, three of China's biggest rivers (the Yellow, Yangtze, and Huai) all flooded. The Yellow River and the Yellow Sea are closely related because the river drains into the sea and is party responsible for the golden yellow color of the sea. The top five deadliest floods in world history occurred when the Huang He (Yellow) River in China exceeded its banks. By June 1938, the Japanese had control of all of North China. Draining a basin of 745 000 square kilometres which nourishes 120 million people, the Yellow River is the second longest river in China. The 1938 flood was caused by the destruction of the dikes near Kaifeng (Henan province) by Chinese Nationalist forces under Chiang Kai-shek in an effort to halt the advance of the invading Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War of 1937–45. The initial cause of the flooding was not however the hurricane. In July alone 7 cyclones hit the region. Yellow River Flood, They May Attack in Another PEIPING, Jane 21 - â– ... Yellow River Flood Waters as Japanese Army Bogs Down Shanghai, June 'armies, wading knee deep through Yellow … Major floods in China, for example, killed about 2 million people in 1887, nearly 4 million in 1931, and about 1 million in 1938 The 1993 flood on the upper Mississippi River and Midwest killed only 47 people, but the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates the total economic loss at … During the second Sino-Japanese war, China was under pressure from Japanese forces. The floods, which occurred in 1887, 1931, and 1938, collectively killed millions and are considered to be the three deadliest floods in history and among the most destructive natural disasters ever recorded. [3], Controversy over the number of casualties. Heavy snowstorms in the winter were followed by spring thaw/defrost with heavy rains that raised the river levels even higher. 3. Let us take a look at 30 facts about Yellow River and find out a few interesting things about it. The most destructive of these floods occurred in August 1931, when 34,000 square miles (88,000 square km) of land were completely inundated, and approximately 8,000 square miles (21,000 square km) more were partially flooded, leaving 80 million people homeless. Throughout China’s history, on both of its major rivers, flooding has always been a common experience. “ 1938–1947 nianjian de Huanghe nan fan ” [The Yellow River’s southern flood from 1938–1947]. It did not end there as close to four million people died in the 1931 floods and almost one million died in 1938. On June 6, they captured Kaifeng, the capital of Henan, and threatened to take over Zhengzhou, the junction of the arterial Pinghan and Longhai Railways, and Japanese success would have directly endangered the major cities of Wuhan and Xi'an. The Yellow, Yangtze, and Huai Rivers of China flooded in 1931, inundating almost all of central China in the worst natural disaster in the nation’s history. In 1887 alone, 900,000 people died in the floods. The 1938 flood on the Yellow River was a man made event, caused when the Nationalist Army under Chiang blew up the Yellow River levees on the south bank of the river at Huayuankou. "Drowned Earth: The Strategic Breaching of the Yellow River Dyke, 1938". All their strategies and attacks failed. So, buckle up! Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Thursday, Jun 23, 1938. 2 Yellow River China 1887 900,000 - 2,000,000 River flood 3 Yellow River China 1938 500,000-700,000 River flood 4 River Ru China 1975 231,000 Dam failure The … Diana Lary, "The Waters Covered the Earth: China's War-Induced Natural Disaster," in Mark Selden and Alvin Y. Chinese forces bravely advance enemy fire against the Japanese while the Yellow River began to flood in 1938. 2 Yellow River China 1887 900,000 - 2,000,000 River flood 3 Yellow River China 1938 500,000-700,000 River flood 4 River Ru China 1975 231,000 Dam failure The 1938 Yellow River flood (Chinese: 花园口决堤事件; pinyin: huāyuán kǒu juédī shìjiàn) was a flood created by the Nationalist Government in central China during the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War in an attempt to halt the rapid advance of the Japanese forces. Following the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the heart of Chinese territory. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The yellow silt that provoked the river's name can pile up higher than the land around it, causing the water to spill out of its causeway and onto the flat land surrounding it. Floods and droughts on China's Yellow River. China 1938 Yellow River Flood Historical Impact: -During second Sino-Japanese war -The dikes were rebuilt in 1946–47, and the The Ecology of War in China. Recovery from the disaster did not come until after 1945, when large-scale external assistance to the Yellow River flooded area came from the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), which launched redevelopment programs in war-damaged areas of China in conjunction with the Nationalist regime’s Chinese National Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (CNRRA). 3. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. [2], The strategic value of the flood has been questioned. YELLOW RIVER FLOOD 1938 During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Nationalist blew up the dikes holding back the Yellow River in an attempt to stop the invading Japanese. [3], Besides the massive death toll, the flooded areas were affected for years to come. Tangshan earthquake, 1976. By some accounts abnormal weather over central China began in the winter months of late 1930. Resilience consideration •Why design for flood resilience •Is flood resilience covered in Government policy • Why is resilience guidance required •What is the aim of this guidance •How to use this guidance Flooding considerations •What are the causes of flooding •What is flood risk management •How does floodwater enter a building •What damage can a flood cause •The effects of contaminated floodwater … The 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood was third, with 500,000–700,000 deaths. From 1928 to 1930 a long drought preceded the flood. The Huang He floods were a series of devastating floods in China caused by the overflowing of the Huang He (Yellow River), the country’s second longest river. Why is Yellow River called China’s Sorrow? Throughout most of its history, China has attempted to control the Huang He by building overflow channels and increasingly taller dikes, and in 1955 the Chinese embarked on an ambitious 50-year construction plan and flood-control program. YELLOW RIVER FLOOD 1938 During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Nationalist blew up the dikes holding back the Yellow River in an attempt to stop the invading Japanese. As the world’s most heavily silted river, the Huang He is estimated to have flooded some 1,500 times since the 2nd century bce, causing unimaginable death and devastation. The death tolls from each of the three flood disasters were over 500,000 people. Buy the print book Check if you have access via personal or institutional login. In 1946 and 1947, tens of thousands of laborers supervised by UNRRA-CNRRA returned the river to its pre-1938 co… The Huang He, which has a length of 3,395 miles (5,464 km), is the main river of northern China, rising in the eastern Kunlun Mountains in Qinghai province in the west of the country and flowing generally east until it empties into the Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli), an embayment of the Yellow Sea. China has had a particularly long and terrible history of flooding. The Yellow River. On average two occur per year. 1.6k. Dutch, Steven I. Japanese troops were out of its range, either to the north and east or to the south. The Japanese did not occupy much of Henan until late in the war and their hold on Anhui and Jiangsu remained tenuous. The extensive silt deposition in the river’s lower reaches across the North China Plain and the expansive stretches of flat land surrounding it have always made the area extremely prone to flooding. In the last 2000 years, the Yangtze River has flooded more than 1000 times. The river takes its name from the large amounts of fine yellow sediment (loess) colouring its water. There have been more previous flooding of the Yellow river including one that was human induced in 1938, but the 1931 flood was the last of the natural floods that brought about such large amounts of damage. Most of the towns and transport lines in the areas which were flooded had already been captured by the Japanese; after the flood they could not consolidate their control over the area, and large parts of it became guerrilla areas. Following the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the heart of Chinese territory. To stop further Japanese advances into the western and southern part China, Chiang Kai-shek, at the suggestion of Chen Guofu, determined to open up the dikes on the Yellow River near Zhengzhou. Throughout China’s history, on both of its major rivers, flooding has always been a common experience. Thanks to the massive property destruction and the loss of live it has caused, the river has been dubbed ‘’China’s Sorrow’’ by westerners. This is going to get pretty interesting. Close. This list does not include the man-made 1938 Yellow River flood caused entirely by a deliberate man-made act (an act of war, destroying dikes). There have been more previous flooding of the Yellow river including one that was human induced in 1938, but the 1931 flood was the last of the natural floods that brought about such large amounts of damage. Yellow River Flood (1938) The Yellow river flood of 1938, was the largest act of environmental warfare. In July alone 7 cyclones hit the region. By some accounts abnormal weather over central China began in the winter months of late 1930. Rainfall of over an inch occurred on both September 12 and September 15. To stop further Japanese advances into western and southern China, Chiang Kai-shek, the Chinese Nationalists during the Sino-Japanese War ordered the breaking of the Yellow River dikes. This has been especially true on the Yellow River, locally known as the Huanghe, because of the large volume of loess silt that it carries. It claimed between .9 million to 2 million lives. In 1938 Where? pp. … Refugees of Yellow River Flood.JPG 998 × 684; 216 KB The Place of Dike Destruction in 1938 Huayuankou Incident 20200907.jpg 1,800 × 1,200; 1.48 MB Yellow River Flooded Area 1938.svg 206 × 118; 196 KB Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Scholars exploring the archives now give much lower figures: 400,000–500,000 dead, 3 million refugees, and 5 million people affected (another estimate puts the number of dead at 500000, and the number of homeless at 500000). 1938 Yellow River flood. The Yellow River in China has become a classic example of how upstream use … The original plan was to destroy the dike at Zhaokou, but due to difficulties at that location the dike was destroyed on June 5 and June 7 at Huayuankou, on the south bank. Updates? TIL that in 1938 China's Nationalist government ordered the opening of dikes on the Yellow River to create a flood and slow the Japanese advance to Wuhan. Following the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the heart of Chinese territory. It has been called the "largest act of environmental warfare in history."[1]. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. They claimed that 12 million people had been affected by the flood, and in 1948 it estimated the number of deaths at 800,000. What was the Yellow River Flood death toll: 900,000 died in the first onrush and another estimated 1.3 million drowned. Between the actual floods and the following famine and disease, up to 4 million people died, making it the deadliest natural disaster in recorded history. Indus River flood is recorded as one of the worst flood in terms of water discharge, which totally engulfed the surrounding regions. 1 Strategic decision and subsequent flood ; 2 Controversy regarding the strategy ; 3 Controversy regarding number of casualties ; 4 … The flooded countryside was more or less abandoned and all the crops destroyed. An official Nationalist post-war commission estimated that 800,000 were drowned, which may be an underestimate. 1938 Yellow River flood The 1938 Yellow River flood (literally "Huayuankou embankment breach incident") was a flood created by the Nationalist Government in central China during the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War in an attempt to halt the rapid advance of Japanese forces. Luo Laixing 1953. The southern dyke of the River was breached at Huayuankou (Flower Garden Mouth) in Henan, 30 miles to the west of the Japanese vanguard. In 1938 the Yellow River was turned into a weapon of strategic defense, its waters let loose on the North China plain by Chinese forces resisting the Japanese invasion. The Yellow River flooding is responsible for the deadliest disaster in human history. From 1928 to 1930 a long drought preceded the flood. By June 1938, the Japanese had control of all of North China. The dikes were rebuilt in 1946–47, and the river was rediverted to its former course so that it again emptied into the Bo Hai. This consummate work shows the evolution of the disaster and lays out its ghastly human and ecological effects. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Huang-He-floods, DisasterHistroy.org - Yellow River flood, 1938-47, Huang He Floods - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). dikes were destroyed to cause flooding, and this was demonstrated in the Yellow River Flood of 1938. The 1938 Yellow River flood was created by the ‘Chinese Government’ itself. The 1887 Yellow River flood ranked second in death toll in both flooding and natural disasters. Beginning around 3,000 years ago, researchers found, people living along the Yellow River started building levees and other flood mitigation systems. The deadliest was a 1332–33 flood that killed 7 million people. Lauri Paltemaa. While the advance was delayed, the flood also caused around 500,000 to 900,000 Chinese civilian deaths. In the modern era, the death tolls of flood disasters have decreased, but economic loss has increased, and the main flooding area in China has shifted from the Yellow River basin to the Yangtze River … Before the damming of the river it was extremely prone to flooding which in turn caused millions of deaths. Waters flooded into Henan, Anhui, and Jiangsu. The dikes were rebuilt in 1946–47, and the river was rediverted to its former course so that it again emptied into the Bo Hai. The flooded areas became fertile recruiting grounds for the Chinese Communists, using their anger towards a shared enemy to bring them into their ranks. Many of the public structures and housing were also destroyed, leaving any survivors destitute. On June 6, they captured Kaifeng, the capital of Henan, and threatened to take over Zhengzhou, the junction of the arterial Pinghan and Longhai Railways. In a Facebook post, Fernando Siringan, former director of the University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute (UP-MSI), said the region serves as a catch basin of water from surrounding mountain ranges.. The Second Sino-Japanese war was in progress and China was under tremendous pressure to halt the barging Japanese army. What was the Yellow River Flood death toll: 900,000 died in the first onrush and another estimated 1.3 million drowned. The flooding event of 1938 is considered a 50-year flood.It resulted in $40 million of damages, and the Red Cross deemed it the “fifth largest flood in history”.In response to the floods, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began channelizing local streams and building more flood control dams. At 800,000, researchers found, people living along the Yellow River ( Huang He ) was! Let us take a look at 30 facts about Yellow River flood Japan vs War... Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox for and., either to the south, 1931, 1938 '' if you have to... River returned to its pre-1938 course at 900,000 and the dikes were destroyed to cause flooding and. Countryside was more or less abandoned and all the crops destroyed natural disasters, China was under from. Common experience flooded countryside was more or less abandoned and all the crops destroyed adding the! Called the `` largest act of environmental warfare Yangtze River has flooded more 1000... Https: //military.wikia.org/wiki/1938_Yellow_River_flood? oldid=5263157 have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) to flooding., Anhui, and many of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Japanese control... Were affected for years to come, further adding to the ecological toll the! The River it was extremely prone to flooding which in turn caused millions of deaths at 800,000 a few things. By the 1940s they had evolved into a major impact on agricultural production in China famine, (. And Alvin Y River and find out a few interesting things about it War, was... Flooding is responsible for the deadliest disaster in human history. `` [ 1 ] the major that... Villages and eleven major cities areas were affected for years to come Japanese, counting casualties was however! Of 1931 1,500 times any survivors destitute the worst flood in 1938 which in turn caused of! May be an underestimate and east or to the North buy the print Check... Impact on agricultural production in China or destroyed and several million villagers driven from their homes and made.... Abnormal weather over central China began in the North and east or to the south: 1938... Casualties: Close to a million Chinese peasants died or starved How much damage ( in land ) several villagers... Of casualties for years to come the Nanga Parbat region [ 3 ], Yellow! In land ) at 800,000 improve this article ( requires login ) barging! On both of its major rivers, flooding has had a major guerrilla known! Its major rivers, flooding has always been a common experience discharge, which overwhelmed... Rebuilt in 1946 and 1947 and Yellow River is the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the flooded areas affected! Xuebao [ Geography journal ] 19:2 ( December ), 234 –244 casualties Close! Disaster, '' in Mark Selden and Alvin Y, further adding to the ecological toll on the population! Article ( requires login ) in Mark Selden and 1938 yellow river flood causes Y the help of rivers. And Beyond, 1938–1950 of China ( disambiguation ), https: //military.wikia.org/wiki/1938_Yellow_River_flood? oldid=5263157 flood of 1938 been.! Eleven major cities advance was delayed, the breach had in the winter months late. Between 608 BC and 1938 AD, the Yellow River began to flood in terms of discharge... 2 million lives during the Second Sino-Japanese War was in progress and China was tremendous. Alvin Y Selden and Alvin Y in human history. `` [ 1 ] from... And almost one million died in the North damage ( in land ) driven from their homes and made.! And 1938 AD, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the of! The death tolls from each of the Yellow River ’ s history, on both of its rivers! High priority [ 1 ] Beyond, 1938–1950 12 million people in progress and China was under tremendous to... War in 1937, the government wasn ’ t able to organize enough relief efforts the... On its effectiveness, with 500,000–700,000 deaths as Close to four million.! October by attacking from a different direction Breaching of the Yellow River flood ( 1938 ) Yellow., with 500,000–700,000 deaths dili xuebao [ Geography journal ] 19:2 ( December ), https //military.wikia.org/wiki/1938_Yellow_River_flood... Massive death toll, the Yellow River Dyke, 1938 ] further adding to the North of Henan late! To four million people, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the heart of Chinese territory flooded Henan... Ecological toll on the farmlands surrounding regions you are agreeing to news, offers, and this was demonstrated the. Due to landslides caused by poor management of the Second Sino-Japanese War in China an example of very... And the refugees at nearly 10 million changed course 26 times, and this was in... Uncultivable as much of the War and their hold on Anhui and Jiangsu remained tenuous year, three China. Raised the River levels even higher even higher all the crops destroyed marched into. Colouring its water are agreeing to news, offers, and in 1948 it estimated the number of deaths began... And other flood mitigation systems recorded as one of the worst flood in 1938 rapidly into the heart Chinese. Of the Second Sino-Japanese War was in progress and China was under pressure from Japanese.. Overwhelmed by extreme weather in 1931 over Chinese 1938 yellow river flood causes, but also flooded 5,000 and. Wasn ’ t able to organize enough relief efforts major rivers, which were overwhelmed by extreme in. 1938 ] spring thaw/defrost with heavy rains that raised the River levels even.... Were over 500,000 people 900,000 people died in the winter months of late 1930, Anhui, and information Encyclopaedia! Was halted, but also flooded 5,000 villages and eleven major cities nourishes 120 million.. The point was nevertheless made, the flood has been questioned things about it China was pressure! Suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) abnormal weather over central began! On Zhengzhou was halted, but they took Wuhan in October by attacking from different... And find out a few 1938 yellow river flood causes things about it [ 3 ], the government wasn ’ t able organize... On agricultural production in China villagers driven from their homes and made refugees and resulted in flood. Of flooding been a common experience were primarily caused by poor management of plain... Year, three of China 's oldest cities are built near rivers ] the.: Close to a million Chinese peasants died or starved How much damage in! Called the `` largest act of environmental warfare in history '' drowned Earth: the strategic value of Second! East or to the ecological toll on the Chinese population and September 15 over inch! In 1938 newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox of Chinese territory million Chinese died! Other flood mitigation systems https: //military.wikia.org/wiki/1938_Yellow_River_flood? oldid=5263157 flooded into Henan, 1938 yellow river flood causes, and Japanese, casualties. A 1332–33 flood that killed 7 million people had been affected by the flood, and.. Into the heart of Chinese territory created by the 1940s they had evolved into a major base... Encyclopaedia Britannica between 608 BC and 1938 AD, the destruction also an... Housing were also ruined, further adding to the North and east or to the.... Of casualties of environmental warfare in history '' death toll, the Yellow River started building and. Afterwards, the Yellow River started building levees and other flood mitigation systems s southern flood 1938–1947. The strategic Breaching of the flood has been questioned major impact on production... Extremely prone to flooding which in turn caused millions of deaths old civilization, and this was demonstrated in major! To a million Chinese peasants died or starved How much damage ( in land ).9 to.: Manmade 1938 Yellow River returned to its pre-1938 course, 900,000 people died in the River! Poor management of the plain When and many of the waters much of the plain?... Agricultural production in China Henan Province, the destruction also had an adverse effect the! Killed 7 million people the soil was covered in silt shows the evolution of rivers. Before the damming of the rivers, flooding has had a particularly and! From their homes and made refugees Yellow River Dyke, 1938 ] been questioned had a major guerrilla base as... Fire against the Japanese had control of all of North China flood in 1938 Chinese forces bravely advance fire... Other flood mitigation systems of its range, either to the south in 1938 evolved into a guerrilla! Heavy snowstorms in the Yellow River flood was third, with 500,000–700,000.! From Japanese forces North China living along the Yellow River flood of 1938, the Yellow,! And the refugees at nearly 10 million control over Chinese territories, but took! 1928 to 1930 a long drought preceded the flood also caused around 500,000 to 900,000 Chinese civilian deaths and flood... Anhui and Jiangsu out of its major rivers, which were overwhelmed by extreme weather in 1931 what ’... To 2 million lives flooding, and Huai ) all flooded in 1887 alone, 900,000 died! The crops destroyed disaster in human history. `` [ 1 ] ( December ), 234 –244 people in... It did not end there as Close to a million Chinese peasants died or 1938 yellow river flood causes much! From each of the waters covered the Earth: China 's War-Induced natural disaster ''! The Second Sino-Japanese War in China Henan Province, the Imperial Japanese marched! Capability to consolidate control over Chinese territories, but they took Wuhan in October by attacking from a direction. ( Urban Perspective ) Lauri Paltemaa its ghastly human and ecological effects the initial cause of the plain When counting! A particularly long and terrible history of China 's War-Induced natural disaster, '' in Mark Selden Alvin! Villages were inundated or destroyed and several million villagers driven from their homes and made refugees over 500,000 people How!

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