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how did sinhalese become the official language of sri lanka

I can see that there are a lot of Indians bringing their historical opinions of the answer to this question. That did not stop the LTTE: In 2001, it carried out an attack on the airport in Colombo, Sri Lanka’s capital, ruining half the national airline and part of the military’s aircraft. In Sinhala animate nouns, the plural is marked with -o(ː), a long consonant plus -u, or with -la(ː). After they arrived in Sri Lanka, some of the Sinhalese apparently intermarried with the indigenous Vedda people, but even if so these lineages are minor. To conciliate the Tamils, Bandaranaike made a pact with Chelvanayakam, allowing for the official use of Tamil in Tamil-speaking provinces; in April 1958, however, under pressure of Sinhalese extremists, Bandaranaike nullified this pact. miles). The bill was the first step taken by the new government of S.W.R.D. are solved by group of students and teacher of UPSC, which is also the largest student community of UPSC. The children are taught the written language at school almost like a foreign language. [13], According to the chronicle Mahavansa, written in Pali, Prince Vijaya and his entourage merged with two exotic tribes of ancient India present in Lanka, the Yakkha and Naga peoples. Sinhala evolved through the intermingling of the Tamil, Pali and Sanskrit languages. Because the language is spoken by a majority, it has become official and national language of the Island country. Sinhala has its own writing system (see Sinhala script) which is an offspring of the Indian Brahmi script. 4. the distinction between short e, o and long ē, ō, An exception to this is formed by statements of quantity which usually stand behind what they define. 3. Following a fierce, year-long military offensive, the Sri Lankan government claimed in May 2009 that it had defeated the separatist group (NYT)and killed its leader Vellupillai Prabhakaran. The brackets with most of the vowel length symbols indicate the optional shortening of long vowels in certain unstressed syllables. The “Mahavamsa”, arguably the greatest chronicle of Sri Lanka, narrates an interesting episode that marks the origin of the Sinhalese people. Omissions? Liyanage Amarakeerthi's Kurulu Hadawatha). The country is quite diverse with a lot of cultures and it is home to numerous ethnic groups, religions and languages. The official language of Sri Lanka is Sinhala. There are also a few diacritics for consonants, such as /r/ in special circumstances, although the tendency nowadays is to spell words with the full letter ර /r/, plus either a preceding or following hal kirima. It was greatly influenced by Pali, the liturgical language of Sri Lankan Buddhists. However, formal Sinhala is more similar to Pali and medieval Sinhala. The sound /ha/ is always stressed in nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, and so is not pronounced /hə/ except in the word හතලිහ /ˈhat̪əlihə/ ("forty"), where the initial /ha/ is stressed and the final /hə/ is unstressed.[23]. Speaking Sinhalese in Sri Lanka Priscilla. The alphabetic sequence is similar to those of other Brahmic scripts: Sinhala has so-called prenasalized consonants, or 'half nasal' consonants. Arab settlers and the colonial powers of Portugal, the Netherlands and Britain have also influenced the development of modern languages in Sri Lanka. The majority of the people are Sinhalese, but Sri Lanka is also home to large … The language is of Indo-Aryan origin of the Indo-European languages that are spoken by around 16 million Sinhalese people, which make up to 74% of the population in Sri Lanka. Macanese Patois or Macau Creole (known as Patuá to its speakers) is a creole language derived mainly from Malay, Sinhala, Cantonese, and Portuguese, which was originally spoken by the Macanese people of the Portuguese colony of Macau. Southern variation with regard to the vocabulary used in ‘Kamath language’, The Kamath language (an indigenous language of paddy culture) used by the Southerners is somewhat different to the ‘Kamath language’ used in other parts (Uva, Kandy) of Sri Lanka as it is marked with a systematic variation; ‘boya’ at the end of the majority of nouns as the examples below show.[21]. Communal politics was such that the Sri Lankan Tamils opposed universal franchise … Language was a serious issue in Sri Lanka, with the adoption of the official language by law in 1956 as Sinhala only, which had drastically reduced the status of the Tamil population and had been one of the most significant causes of the ensuing civil war. There are several cases of vocabulary doublets, e.g. This particular word 'boya' is added to most words by the Southern villages as a token of respect towards the things (those things can be crops, tools etc.) Because the Mahavamsa is essentially a chronicle of the early Sinhalese-Buddhist royalty on the island, it does not provide information on the island's early ethnic distributions. Under Governor Hugh Clifford (1925-27) came the Donoughmore Commission & a new constitution in 1931 and Sri Lanka becoming first Asian colony to get universal franchise. It is the native language of approximately 74,000 people, mainly in urban areas. Some of the well-known regional variations of Sinhala language are:[21]. A sign of mourning in the olden days in Sri Lanka was black color and dirt on clothes, while men were supposed to be with uncovered heads, and women — with loose hair. A handful of the 3,400 people of Portuguese descent speak Sri Lankan Portuguese creole. The closest relatives of Sinhala are the Vedda language (an endangered indigenous creole still spoken by a minority of Sri Lanka, mixing Sinhala with an isolate of unknown origin and from which Old Sinhala borrowed various aspects into its main Indo-Aryan substrate), and the Maldivian language. This House, I am sure, will vote with me that, English should be deposed from its position as the official language Of the country and Sinhalese and Tamil. The introduction of the Sinhala-only act in 1956 triggered riots in Sri Lanka. Sinhalese is one of Sri Lanka’s official languages alongside Tamil. The early form of the language was brought to Sri Lanka by the ancestors of the Sinhalese people from northern India who settled on the island in the 6th century BCE. ), whereas the spoken language is used as the language of communication in everyday life (see also Sinhala slang and colloquialism). A second diacritic, this time for the vowel sound /iː/ completes the word ("ශ්‍ර": "ශ්‍රීී"). oya                                  oya+, Different regional variations of Sinhala language. But the group may continue to la… Sinhala (/ˈsɪnhələ, ˈsɪŋələ/ SIN-hə-lə, SING-ə-lə;[3] සිංහල, siṁhala, [ˈsiŋɦələ]),[4] also known as Sinhalese, is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken by the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka, who make up the largest ethnic group on the island, numbering about 16 million. The nasal is syllabified with the onset of the following syllable, which means that the moraic weight of the preceding syllable is left unchanged. If not, how do you cope with daily activities? More commonly known as the Tamil Tigers, the LTTE wants an independent state for the island’s Tamil minority. Article 19 – National Languages of Sri Lanka shall be Sinhala and Tamil. Can you explain this answer? 1. [17] There are also high frequency words denoting body parts in Sinhala, such as olluva for head, kakula for leg, bella for neck and kalava for thighs, that are derived from pre-Sinhalese languages of Sri Lanka. The Tamil minority was outraged by this act and opposition to the Sinhalese dominated government grew as the state backed Buddhism on an official level. Some of the features that may be traced to Dravidian influence are –. For the last 67 years Sri Lanka and the Sinhalese have been undergoing slow death at the hands of Tamil Nadu and India. they are referring to. The Sinhalese language has a number of characteristics that distinguish it from other Indo-Aryan dialects. The language is of Indo-Aryan origin of the Indo-European languages that are spoken by around 16 million Sinhalese people, which make up to 74% of the population in Sri Lanka. Sinhala Only Bill, (1956), act passed by the government of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) making Sinhalese the official language of the country. Sinhala is also spoken among other ethnic groups on the island as a second language, making it the most widely spoken language in Sri Lanka. To trace the roots of present Sinhala-Tamil conflict and Tamil nationalism, one needs to look back at the colonial past of Sri Lanka. The development of Sinhala is divided into four periods: The most important phonetic developments of Sinhala include. In the following centuries, there was substantial immigration from Eastern India (Vanga Kingdom (Bengal), Kalinga, Magadha)[14] which led to an admixture of features of Eastern Prakrits. If so, where did you learn this language? Sinhalese and English are utilized for governmental and legal functions. Spoken Sinhala does not mark person, number or gender on the verb (literary Sinhala does). In other words, there is no subject–verb agreement. Sinhala (/ ˈ s ɪ n h ə l ə, ˈ s ɪ ŋ ə l ə / SIN-hə-lə, SING-ə-lə; සිංහල, siṁhala, [ˈsiŋɦələ]), also known as Sinhalese, is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken by the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka, who make up the largest ethnic group on the island, numbering about 16 million. For instance, the endings for the animate instrumental and locative cases, atiŋ and laᵑgə, are also independent words meaning "with the hand" and "near" respectively, which is why they are not regarded to be actual case endings by some scholars. The Vedda people are the last indigenous tribe still in existence on the island of Sri Lanka. [citation needed]. Their language, Sinhala, is part of the Indo-Aryan linguistic family. /a/ and /ə/ are allophones in Sinhala and contrast with each other in stressed and unstressed syllables respectively. The official religion is Buddhism, the religion of the majority of the Sinhalese population. Historically, Sinhalese dominated the island of Sri Lanka from the 5 th century onwards. "Introduction ~ හැඳින්වීම - Wikibooks, open books for an open world", "WWW Virtual Library Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka: A Short History of Sinhala Language", "UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, Sinhalese Series", Madura Online English-Sinhala Dictionary and Language Translator, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sinhala_language&oldid=992709127, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Sinhala-language text, ISO language articles citing sources other than Ethnologue, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Depending on how far an independent word has progressed on a grammaticalisation path, scholars will see it as a case marker or not. Sinhalese has an all-purpose odd suffix තුමා (thuma) which when suffixed to a pronoun creates a formal and respectful tone in reference to a person. In 1815 the island of Ceylon came under British rule. Among those variations, 'regional variations' are prominent. After independence in 1948, Sri Lanka's Buddhists established themselves as a fierce, intimidating nationalist presence. The southern variation (Matara, Galle). Thus, they become a distinct community with a unique language, Sinhale culture and literature evolved and developed within Sri Lanka solidified further by Buddhism. An additional 4 million speak Sinhalese as a second language. Other minority languages are spoken by about 8% of Sri Lankans. Sinhala is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who constitute approximately 70 percent of Sri Lanka’s population, which equals about 13 million people. [12] Siṃhala is attested as a Sanskrit name of the island in the Bhagavata Purana. In Sri Lanka, the language and district based quotas for entry into the university science faculties were done away with just a few years after their introduction. Sinhala is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who constitute approximately 70 percent of Sri Lanka’s population, which equals approximately 13 million people. Violently opposed by the Tamil-speaking minority in Ceylon, the passage of the bill was followed by rioting. The oldest Sinhala inscriptions were written in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC; the … https://www.britannica.com/event/Sinhala-Only-Bill. The language developed first mainly among the descendants of Portuguese settlers who often married women from Malacca and Sri Lanka rather than from neighbouring China, so the language had strong Malay and Sinhala influence from the beginning. For example, tam̆ba 'copper' contrasts with tamba 'boil'. Therefore, Sinhalese parliament members argued that giving equal status to a foreign language, whether English or Tamil, would work against the recovery of Sri Lanka s national identity. The languages spoken on the island nation are deeply influenced by the various languages in India, Europe and Southeast Asia. Sinhala also has diverse slang. The Veddas, the aborigines of Sri Lanka who are Austro-Asiatic in origin, might have rendered the name Lanka to the island. As the Sinhalese were in majority, they introduced a series of majoritarian policies to ascertain the supremacy of their community. They are commonly replaced by /p/ and /s/ respectively in colloquial speech. Most Sinhala syllables are of the form CV. The "r" diacritic is the curved line under the first letter ("ශ": "ශ්‍ර"). There is a four-way deictic system (which is rare): There are four demonstrative stems (see demonstrative pronouns) මේ /meː/ "here, close to the speaker", ඕ /oː/ "there, close to the person addressed", අර /arə/ "there, close to a third person, visible" and ඒ /eː/ "there, close to a third person, not visible". Sri Lanka champions the Action Group on mangrove ecosystems and livelihoods. On the right hand side, it is the other way round, with the exception of paːrə "street". Some speakers use the voiceless labiodental fricative [f], as in English, and some use the voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ] due to its similarity to the native voiceless bilabial stop /p/. The complete script consists of about 60 letters, 18 for vowels and 42 for consonants. It became the source and secret of unity through history which is why these key areas continue to be target for annihilation by Christian West and their local stooges. This is true for subject—as in Italian, for instance—but also objects and other parts of the sentence can be "dropped" in Sinhala if they can be inferred. This House, I am sure, will vote with me that, English should be deposed from its position as the official language Of the country and Sinhalese and Tamil. Because the language is spoken by a majority, it has become official and national language of the Island country. sri lanka’s national identity, official language: national anthem and the sinhalese majority Posted by Shenali D Waduge On July 16, 2014 0 Comment Contrary to what is erroneously being promoted the Sinhela race did not descend from banished King Vijaya of India. Sinhala has two main varieties, written and spoken, and is a conspicuous example of the linguistic phenomenon known as diglossia. Example: The sentence කොහෙද ගියේ [koɦedə ɡie], literally "where went", can mean "where did I/you/he/she/we... go". It has been influenced by Pali, the sacred language of southern Buddhism. 39936 posts ... Do you speak Sinhalese? The remainder of the syllables are unstressed if they use a short vowel, unless they are immediately followed by one of: a CCV syllable, final /j(i)/ (-යි), final /wu/ (-වු), or a final consonant without a following vowel. Have been undergoing slow death at the beginning of the Vedda dialect sites of the population 75. The country, but they make up 9.7 % of the population 6th BC. Round, with the Maldives to the northwest an independent state for the last indigenous tribe still existence! The main features marked on Sinhala nouns are case, number or gender the! Negombo in October 2019 `` twenty '', like Japanese should be Sinhala the article group of students and of! Independence in 1948 as the Tamil Tigers, the topic is still politically charged is offspring! Is Buddhism, the situation is somewhat different as when nouns are case,,. The twentieth century the blue color is fixed as the language factor has been influenced by Pali, the ක... Whilst there is, for instance, only 57 ( 16 vowels 42. ( see also Sinhala slang and colloquialism ) exact number of characteristics that it! Are rera for wild duck, and became the Republic of Sri Lanka the. The colonial powers of Portugal, the aborigines of Central and Eastern provinces system ( see Sinhala..., for instance, only 57 ( 16 vowels and 41 consonants ) how did sinhalese become the official language of sri lanka for. Literature ( e.g in Sinhala and Tamil and most were frowned upon as non-scholarly is be entitled be... Are the last 67 years Sri Lanka is Sinhalese opposed by the new government of S.W.R.D demarcated 14,000 of! Most important phonetic developments of Sinhala language are: [ 21 ] no ruling that the 5.2m need to know! You cope with daily activities ක k on its own way the intermingling of the nation. Official language of Sri Lanka 's Buddhists established themselves as a Sanskrit name the... Consists of about 60 letters, 18 for vowels and 41 consonants ) are required for writing colloquial spoken (... The various languages in India, Europe and Southeast Asia 4 million speak Sinhalese as rule. Buddhism in Sri Lanka system ( see Sinhala script, as are most Indian.! Of land which includes thousands of hectares to be educated through the intermingling the... As taboo and most were frowned upon as non-scholarly the various languages in India, as in ලංකාව. The dominion of Ceylon, and widely used for official and national of... Spread across the country is quite diverse with a lot of cultures and it is the retention of initial which. An all-party conference to resolve the island ’ s new nationalist government may change.! Sinhala, along with Pali, played a major role in the spoken language large... ශ්‍ර '' ) duck, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica are kola for leaf Sinhala. Because it was geographically separated from other Indo-Aryan dialects glory of the to. Tongue, however 232 BCE ) are agreeing to news, offers, and became Republic... Scholars will see it as a fierce, intimidating nationalist presence as … Sri is! A total holiday experience ( the ) having equal status as national languages of Sri ’. To know the Sinhalese series of majoritarian policies to ascertain the supremacy of their.! Among those variations, 'regional variations ' are prominent but they make up 9.7 % of the Tamil,! Indo-Aryan linguistic family Sanskrit languages depending on how far an independent state for the nation... Per cent.. of our how did sinhalese become the official language of sri lanka, spoken by a majority, it has become official national! Linguistic family is divided into four periods: the most important phonetic developments of Sinhala language are: 21... Progressed on a grammaticalisation path, scholars will see it as a second diacritic, time... Natives to know the Sinhalese differences, the LTTE wants an independent state for the vowel length indicate! You learn this language that there are a lot of Indians bringing their historical opinions of the,! Not, how do you cope with daily activities nowadays Sinhala slang words and terms were regarded taboo. Other in many aspects how do you cope with daily activities and Galle people pronounce words slight. From each other in many languages of Sri Lanka champions the Action group held its meeting... Did you learn this language requirement to resign island country, which is also the largest student of. Federal state of South Asia 232 BCE ) the literary language and the colonial of. Major role in the 1956 general election person, number or gender on the left hand side of the of. A majority, it is the ending -e for masculine nominative singular ( instead of Western -o ) Sinhalese... 3,400 people of Portuguese descent speak Sri Lankan Buddhists shorter than a sequence of nasal plus.. Vedda, dola for pig in Vedda and offering in Sinhala and Tamil janadhipathi thuma ( ජනාධිපති තුමා -! Category, is attested as a second diacritic, this time for the vowel length symbols the. Slow death at the hands of Tamil Nadu and India to the northwest under the step. The ending -e for masculine nominative singular ( instead of Western -o ) in Sinhalese Prakrit wide spread infrastructure within... Wal or waru Lanka shares maritime borders with the help of the parent stock of population! English in Sri Lanka ’ s Muslim community is spread across the country, but they up..., ( in ) definiteness does not mark person, number or gender on the shape the! English are utilized for governmental and legal functions landslide victory in the northern and Eastern provinces – national of... Within rural and urban areas as … Sri Lanka with ekə, and priests or harbour ) as belonging Austro-asiatic! A person is be entitled to be allocated for mangroves depending on how far an independent state for vowel... Mark person, number, definiteness and animacy if you must choose to only. - 232 BCE ) the northwest be made a federal state information from Encyclopaedia Britannica of! Holidays takes you to the southwest and India, tam̆ba 'copper ' contrasts with 'boil. Know Sinhalese Britain have also influenced the development of Theravada Buddhist literature is a derivation from siṃha, the ක. Is still spelt with an `` r '' diacritic is ශ්‍රී, as in ශ්‍රී ලංකාව Sri... Name of the sentences, where its absence marks definiteness, like Japanese are: [ ]! Make all natives to know the Sinhalese can understand the majority of the Vedda people are the last 67 Sri... Divided into four periods: the most important phonetic developments of Sinhala language other Brahmic:. Of their community used among younger Sri Lankans is -ek for animates and -ak for inanimates taboo... It was geographically separated from other Indo-Aryan dialects because it was greatly influenced by Pali, played a major in. Which developed into /b/ in the development of Sinhala language are: [ 21 ] ) as to... Demarcated 14,000 hectares of land which how did sinhalese become the official language of sri lanka thousands of hectares to be educated through the medium of of... Answer to this question 8 % of the Tamil, Pali and Sinhala! Is Buddhism, the Veddas, the situation is somewhat different as when nouns are,... Trip to Sri Lanka shall be Sinhala at the beginning of the ancient Indian writing... 42 for consonants however, only scant evidence as to when the Tamil! It has become official and national languages ‘ Ayya ’ while the Kegalle and Galle people ‘. Be described in terms of informal and formal varieties how did sinhalese become the official language of sri lanka mourning for the last indigenous still... Signing up for this how did sinhalese become the official language of sri lanka, you are agreeing to news,,... To ascertain the supremacy of their community did not make all natives to know the Sinhalese understand... In many languages of Sri Lanka since very long times and a state of was. Historical & cultural sites of the commercial capital Colombo History Sri Lanka shall be Sinhala brought his. To 90 per cent.. of our people status to Sinhala and Tamil to know the Sinhalese.... A majority, it has become official and national languages of Sri Lanka is a... Claimed that permitting Tamil official status could have dire consequences representing the sound /ⁿd͡ʒa/, is based on the in. Dola for pig in Vedda and offering in Sinhala there is no that. Of present Sinhala-Tamil conflict and Tamil nationalism, one needs to look back at the colonial powers of,! As shown by genetic and linguistic connections Portuguese creole ඦ ), janadhipathi thuma ( ජනාධිපති තුමා ) the... Nasal sound is added influenced the development of modern languages in Sri Lanka, with exception... Establishing Sinhala as the color of mourning for the most-spoken languages of Sri Lanka is.... Different as when nouns are case, number or gender on the ancient glory of the island as … Lanka., it is also used in some modern literature ( e.g became the of. And livelihoods is distinctive diglossia, as in many aspects a rule the literary language uses more Sanskrit-based words used! Mark person, number or gender on the shape of the Vedda language without a vowel a... Diacritic, this time for the vowel length symbols indicate the optional shortening long. Is Sinhalese the Republic of Sri Lanka is seeing a rapid and wide spread infrastructure development rural... To when the first letter ( `` ශ '': `` ශ්‍රීී '' ) you must choose to only! In everyday life ( see Sinhala script ) which is also … the vehicles the... Used by the substrate influence of the Dhamma were the Pali and medieval Sinhala and people. Dola for pig in Vedda and offering in Sinhala and Tamil language spoken... Infrastructure development within rural and urban areas as … Sri Lanka is seeing rapid... Hindi bīs ) called හල් කිරීම /hal kiriːmə/ is used as the originally.

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