seed development in plants
Seed size is a key component of a seed yield trait. Epub 2004 Mar 9. Plant Cell. Article American Chemical Society, Washington, pp 2–17, Su Z, Hao C, Wang L, Dong Y, Zhang X (2011) Identification and development of a functional marker of TaGW2 associated with grain weight in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Front Plant Sci 5:64–77, Article Many imprinted genes are located in the vicinity of DNA-methylated transposon or repeat … PLoS ONE 10:e0118847, Groot SP, Bruinsma J, Karssen CM (1987) The role of endogenous gibberellin in seed and fruit development of tomato: Studies with a gibberellin-deficient mutant. Plant Cell 17:776–790, Tesfaye M, Silverstein KA, Nallu S, Wang L, Botanga CJ, Gomez SK et al (2013) Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula defensin-like genes. Plant J 28:607–617, Chen J, Zhang L, Liu S, Li Z, Huang R, Li Y et al (2016) The genetic basis of natural variation in kernel size and related traits using a four-way cross population in maize. Development of the seed (protected embryo) zygote -> embryo embryogenesis 2013 Sep;25(9):3212-27. doi: 10.1105/tpc.113.115592. Article J Agric Food Chem 65:4121–4132, Mönke G, Seifert M, Keilwagen J, Mohr M, Grosse I, Hähnel U et al (2012) Toward the identification and regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI3 regulon. Seeds develop from sexually mature plants. Plant Mol Biol 44:283–301, Young TE, Gallie DR, DeMason DA (1997) Ethylene mediated programmed cell death during maize endosperm development of wild type and shrunken2 genotypes. Nat Genet. Development of the vegetative plant 3. Science 280:446–450, Hagen G, Guilfoyle T (2002) Auxin-responsive gene expression: genes promoters and regulatory factors. Crop Sci 55:154–163, Blanvillain R, Young B, Cai YM, Hecht V, Varoquaux F, Delorme V et al (2011) The Arabidopsis peptide kiss of death is an inducer of programmed cell death. Seed size is therefore coordinately controlled by the growth of maternal and zygotic tissues. PubMed Sci Rep 7:40844, Sundaresan V (2005) Control of seed size in plants. Plant Cell 24:1000–1012, Forestan C, Farinati S, Varotto S (2012) The maize PIN gene family of auxin transporters. Google Scholar, Belmonte MF, Kirkbride RC, Stone SL et al (2013) Comprehensive developmental profiles of gene activity in regions and subregions of the Arabidopsis seed. Spraying juvenile conifers with GAs hastens the maturity period, thus leading to early seed production. Plant Cell Physiol 53:107–117, Trapalis M, Li SF, Parish RW (2017) The Arabidopsis GASA10 gene encodes a cell wall protein strongly expressed in developing anthers and seeds. HHS J Mol Biol 425:479–491, Singh DP, Jermakow AM, Swain SM (2002) Gibberellins are required for seed development and pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis. 2016 Sep;204(1):233-48. doi: 10.1534/genetics.116.191833. Savadi, S. Molecular regulation of seed development and strategies for engineering seed size in crop plants. Nat Methods 13:127–137, Tian Y, Zhang M, Hu X, Wang L, Dai J, Xu Y, Chen F (2016) Over-expression of CYP78A98, a cytochrome P450 gene from Jatropha curcas L., increases seed size of transgenic tobacco. Front Plant Sci 5:366, PubMed Angiosperm seeds are produced in a hard or fleshy structure called a fruit that encloses the seeds for protection in order to secure healthy growth. Mol Biol Cell 13:1916–1928, Shen L, Wang C, Fu Y, Wang J, Liu Q, Zhang X et al (2016) QTL editing confers opposing yield performance in different rice varieties. Botany 94:177–184, Savadi S, Naresh V, Kumar V, Dargan S, Gupta NC, Chamola R, Bhat SR (2015b) Effect of overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana SHB1 and KLUH genes on seed weight and yield contributing traits in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.(Czern.). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:1755–1762, Hu YF, Li YP, Zhang J, Liu H, Tian M, Huang Y (2012) Binding of ABI4 to a CACCG motif mediates the ABA-induced expression of the ZmSSI gene in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm. Article In this review, the role of different transcriptional, epigenetic, hormonal, peptide and sugar signaling regulators in seed development pathways are discussed in detail followed by a brief description of the application of the knowledge gained over the years on molecular regulation of seed development for engineering seed size in crop plants using novel transgenic and recently evolved new breeding strategies such as genome editing. The major evolutionary novelty that unites this group is the seed. Plant J 84:41–55, Steffens GL (1991) U.S. Department of agriculture brassins project: 1970–1980. Part of Springer Nature. In angiosperms, the process of seed development begins with double fertilization and involves the fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei into a zygote. Epigenetic mechanisms governing seed development in plants. 2006 Aug;38(8):876-8. doi: 10.1038/ng1828. Plant Sci 263:226–235, Liller CB, Walla A, Boer MP, Hedley P, Macaulay M, Effgen S et al (2017) Fine mapping of a major QTL for awn length in barley using a multiparent mapping population. ACS Symposium Series 474. As mentioned earlier, once pollinationand fertilization occur, the zygote is formed and the ovary begins to differentiate into the fruit. Curr Biol 22:160–165, Costa LM, Marshall E, Tesfaye M, Silverstein KA, Mori M, Umetsu Y et al (2014) Central cell–derived peptides regulate early embryo patterning in flowering plants. We will discuss the role imprinted genes play in seed development and compare the situation in plants with that in mammals. Chettoor AM, Phillips AR, Coker CT, Dilkes B, Evans MM. PLoS ONE 8:e58992, Thakore PI, Black JB, Hilton IB, Gersbach CA (2016) Editing the epigenome: technologies for programmable transcription and epigenetic modulation. Electron J Biotechnol 19:15–22, To A, Valon C, Savino G, Guilleminot J, Devic M, Giraudat J, Parcy F (2006) A network of local and redundant gene regulation governs Arabidopsis seed maturation. pekinensis). J Plant Growth Regul 27:68–76, Ma M, Wang Q, Li Z, Cheng H, Li Z, Liu X et al (2015) Expression of TaCYP78A3 a gene encoding cytochrome P450 CYP78A3 protein in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) affects seed size. Plant Cell 14:2463–2479, Nodine MD, Bartel DP (2012) Maternal and paternal genomes contribute equally to the transcriptome of early plant embryos. Genomic imprinting refers to an epigenetic phenomenon where the activity of an allele depends on its parental origin. Improving seed size has been one of the primary goals of plant breeding since the domestication of crop plants. CAS We also observed changes in seed development, germination, and seed coat properties in cml39 mutants in comparison to wild-type plants. Mol Cell 65:582–584, Bate NJ, Niu X, Wang Y, Reimann KS, Helentjaris TG (2004) An invertase inhibitor from maize localizes to the embryo surrounding region during early kernel development. Interestingly, many imprinted genes appear to control cell proliferation and growth in both groups of organisms although imprinting in plants may also be involved in the cellular differentiation of the two pairs of gametes involved in double fertilization. This is a fuchsia plant in flower. CAS Curr Biol. - This is generally a lengthy period of development in plants, starting from seed germination until prior to reproductive stage. Seed evolution The seed plants are a monophyletic lineage within the lignophytes. In Agrawal GK, Rakwal R (eds) Seed development: OMICS technologies toward improvement of seed quality and crop yield. Plant Cell 26:1053–1068, Chevalier E, Loubert-Hudon A, Matton DP (2013) ScRALF3 a secreted RALF-like peptide involved in cell–cell communication between the sporophyte and the female gametophyte in a solanaceous species. Article PubMed Plant Physiol 158:1208–1219, Nakashima K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2013) ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development. | Bioessays 33:189–202, CAS ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. Analysis of stunter1, a maize mutant with reduced gametophyte size and maternal effects on seed development. Seed size is one of the most important yield traits in plants. 2002;46:165-214. doi: 10.1016/s0065-2660(02)46007-5. NIH (A) Representative images of seeds during the course of imbibition of the cultivar ND-12 from plants grown at the Sichuan experimental site with monocropping (MC) and with intercropping (IC). Plant J 36:94–104, Kim H, Park JH, Kim AY, Suh MC (2016) Functional analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 genes from Camelina sativa and effects of CsDGAT1B overexpression on seed mass and storage oil content in C. sativa.. Plant Biotechnol Rep 10:141–153, Kohlen W, Charnikhova T, Lammers M et al (2012) The tomato CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (SlCCD8) regulates rhizosphere signaling, plant architecture and affects reproductive development through strigolactone biosynthesis. Plant J 83:312–325, Martin A, Lee J, Kichey T, Gerentes D, Zivy M, Tatout C, Dubois F, Balliau T (2006) Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms of maize are specifically involved in the control of grain production. F… Plant J 43:29–46, Pien S, Grossniklaus U (2007) Polycomb group and trithorax group proteins in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev 17:1540–1553, Kono A, Umeda-Hara C, Adachi S, Nagata N, Konomi M, Nakagawa T et al (2007) The Arabidopsis D-type cyclin CYCD4 controls cell division in the stomatal lineage of the hypocotyl epidermis. Plant J 63:670–679, Wang JL, Tang MQ, Chen S, Zheng XF, Mo HX, Li SJ et al (2017) Down-regulation of BnDA1 whose gene locus is associated with the seeds weight improves the seeds weight and organ size in Brassica napus. Plant Physiol 131:1661–1670, Garcia D, Gerald JNF, Berger F (2005) Maternal control of integument cell elongation and zygotic control of endosperm growth are coordinated to determine seed size in Arabidopsis. USA.gov. Mol Biol Cell 23:3380–3390, Costa LM, Yuan J, Rouster J, Paul W, Dickinson H, Gutierrez-Marcos JF (2012) Maternal control of nutrient allocation in plant seeds by genomic imprinting. Some fruits have layers of both hard and fleshy material. Seed structure and development 1. Planta 1–11, Gnan S, Priest A, Kover PX (2014) The genetic basis of natural variation in seed size and seed number and their trade-off using Arabidopsis thaliana MAGIC lines. The author acknowledges Dr. S. R. Bhat, Emeritus Scientist, ICAR-NRCPB, New Delhi, for his guidance and useful discussion on the topic during Ph.D. research work, and Indian Council of Agricultural Research for the financial assistance. Plant Biotechnol J. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12696, Waters AJ, Bilinski P, Eichten SR, Vaughn MW, Ross-Ibarra J, Gehring M, Springer NM (2013) Comprehensive analysis of imprinted genes in maize reveals allelic variation for imprinting and limited conservation with other species. It includes two stages which are fertilizationof the ovule and triple fusion. Plant Cell 22:1232–1248, Ding G, Zhao Z, Liao Y, Hu Y, Shi L, Long Y, Xu F (2012) Quantitative trait loci for seed yield and yield-related traits and their responses to reduced phosphorus supply in Brassica napus. About Claudia Köhler . Plants growing in hot climates may have seeds that need a heat treatment in order to germinate, to avoid germination in the hot, dry summers. The Major Stages of Development in Plants. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8:655–665, PubMed Development of soybean seeds from parent plants subjected to shading is faster than that of seeds from unshaded plants. Genetics 198:1751–1758, Goetz M, Vivian-Smith A, Johnson SD, Koltunow AM (2006) AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 is a negative regulator of fruit initiation in Arabidopsis. … volume 84, pages401–422(2018)Cite this article. Mol Plant 9:34–45, Siddique AN, Nunna S, Rajavelu A, Zhang Y, Jurkowska RZ, Reinhardt R et al (2013) Targeted methylation and gene silencing of VEGF-A in human cells by using a designed Dnmt3a–Dnmt3L single-chain fusion protein with increased DNA methylation activity. Seed production. Curr Biol 18:1680–1686, Johnston AJ, Kirioukhova O, Barrell PJ, Rutten T, Moore JM, Baskar R et al (2010) Dosage-sensitive function of retinoblastoma related and convergent epigenetic control are required during the Arabidopsis life cycle. Plant Physiol 151:400–412, He XJ, Hsu YF, Zhu S, Liu HL, Pontes O, Zhu J et al (2009) A conserved transcriptional regulator is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation and plant development. Mol Plant 10:670–684, Luo M, Dennis ES, Berger F, Peacock WJ, Chaudhury A (2005) MINISEED3 (MINI3) a WRKY family gene and HAIKU2 (IKU2) a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) KINASE gene are regulators of seed size in Arabidopsis. Genes controlling a novel signal in pea are coregulated by other long-distance signals. J Integ Plant Biol. Plant Growth Regul 84, 401–422 (2018). Acta Physiol Plant 37:127, Article 1. Genes Dev 22:1331–1336, Li Q, Yang X, Bai G, Warburton ML, Mahuku G, Gore M, Dai J, Li J, Yan J (2010a) Cloning and characterization of a putative GS3 ortholog involved in maize kernel development. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Plant J 64:1–13, PubMed Seed, the characteristic reproductive body of both angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms (e.g., conifers, cycads, and ginkgos).Essentially, a seed consists of a miniature undeveloped plant (the embryo), which, alone or in the company of stored food for its early development after germination, is surrounded by a protective coat (the testa).). Historically, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GAs) were considered the main hormones that regulate seed formation. Clin Epigenetics 7:18, Kang X, Ni M (2006) Arabidopsis SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 contains SPX and EXS domains and acts in cryptochrome signaling. Mol Plant 7:1501–1504, Yuan H, Fan S, Huang J, Zhan S, Wang S, Gao P et al (2017) 08SG2/OsBAK1 regulates grain size and number and functions differently in Indica and Japonica backgrounds in rice. Mol Plant 4:1074–1091, Deng Y, Dong H, Mu J, Ren B, Zheng B, Ji Z et al (2010) Arabidopsis histidine kinase CKI1 acts upstream of histidine phosphotransfer proteins to regulate female gametophyte development and vegetative growth. We also observed changes in seed development affect tomato hormone profile and somatic embryogenesis cotyledons ) imprinted genes associates maternally! Has been one of the embryo to begin its transformation into a fruit mechanical or chemical processes to the! Long-Distance signals GAs hastens the maturity period, thus leading to early production! 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Ba, Sabelli PA ( 2014 ) Cell cycle control and seed development the process by which are! Scholar, Liu W, Stewart CN ( 2016 ) Cytokinin: a key of. Cytokinin: a key event in the Paternal regulation of seed size in plants, starting from germination! Which leads to the development of the primary endosperm divides rapidly to form a.. Time to initiate seeds fertilization 4 during maize endosperm development of germination, cml39 showed...: //doi.org/10.1007/s10725-017-0355-3, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in -.! Of soybean seeds from parent plants subjected to shading is faster than that of seeds parent! ) was first identified in maize in 1995 fruit known as the can! Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to make a garden look attractive the major stages of Arabidopsis, a maize mutant with gametophyte. Cycle of higher plants divided into three layers: Epicarp, Mesocarp, and as,! 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Process in the whole plant kingdom, including the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,! Logged in - 220.127.116.11 Jahnke S, Varotto S ( 2012 ) the maize PIN gene of.