mount erebus eruption 2018
The occurrence of strombolian eruptions may be automatically detected in several manners through data such as cross-correlation of seismic recordings and identifying anomalies in gas emissions. Activity has been relatively uniform over the last 15 years with the exception of two significant events. Mount Erebus is one of several volcanoes in the McMurdo Volcanic Group which itself consists of Late Cenozoic intraplate alkaline volcanoes. 12/1974 (CSLP 169-74) Ash eruption with gray cloud rising 300 m above summit, 03/1976 (NSEB 01:06) Crater lava lake increases in size since 1974-75 summe, 01/1977 (NSEB 02:01) Vigorous convection in 100-m-diameter anorthoclase phonolite lava lake, 12/1977 (NSEB 02:12) No apparent change in the lava lake; two small Strombolian eruptions, 05/1978 (SEAN 03:05) Lava lake persists; Strombolian eruptions from nearby vent, 07/1978 (SEAN 03:07) Strombolian activity increases and 15 years of lava lake history are summarized, 10/1978 (SEAN 03:10) Lava lake activity persists; two small congealed lava flows, but reduced Strombolian activity, 05/1979 (SEAN 04:05) Lava lake and Strombolian activity persist, 02/1981 (SEAN 06:02) Lava lake revisited; seismic and acoustic monitoring begin, 03/1982 (SEAN 07:03) Lava lake level lower, 03/1983 (SEAN 08:03) Lava lake level drops slightly; explosion earthquakes; earthquake swarm near area of 1908 thermal activity, 01/1984 (SEAN 09:01) Dimensions of active lava lake from photo data; seismicity normal; SO2 flux measured, 09/1984 (SEAN 09:09) Vigorous explosions, clouds, and incandescent tephra, 10/1984 (SEAN 09:10) Large pumiceous bombs; lava lake frozen and uplifted, 03/1985 (SEAN 10:03) Explosions continue, ejecting large pumiceous bombs, 03/1986 (SEAN 11:03) Lava lake returns; weak SO2 emission, 12/1986 (SEAN 11:12) Frequent explosions from lava lake, 01/1987 (SEAN 12:01) Mild Strombolian activity at lava lake, 02/1988 (SEAN 13:02) Lava lakes; Strombolian activity; collapse; SO2 data, 02/1989 (SEAN 14:02) Lava lake shrinks to three pools; Strombolian eruptions, 03/1990 (BGVN 15:03) Occasional Strombolian explosions from two small lava lakes; stronger SO2emission, 01/1991 (BGVN 16:01) Lava lake activity continues; remote camera documents strong explosion, 11/1994 (BGVN 19:11) Gas plume analyses reported, 12/1995 (BGVN 20:11) No significant activity from the active lava lake; gas measurements, 12/2006 (BGVN 31:12) Large eruptions stop in June 2006, 03/2008 (BGVN 33:03) Significant eruptions tabulated for 2007, 09/2011 (BGVN 36:09) Lava lake convects and spews spatter and gases in December 2010, 06/2017 (BGVN 42:06) Phonolitic lava lakes remain active during 2011-2016, 01/2019 (BGVN 44:01) Lava lakes persist through 2017 and 2018, 01/2020 (BGVN 45:01) Lava lakes persist through 2019, Ash eruption with gray cloud rising 300 m above summit, Card 2026 (10 December 1974) Ash eruption with gray cloud rising 300 m above summit. Some of these are apparently tectonic earthquakes occurring some distance from Mt. Incandescent lava was observed beneath each vent. "The lava lake grew from small hornitos in 1972 to a semi-circular lake ~100 m long by 1976. Information Contacts: Philip R. Kyle and Kyle Jones, Mt. The one in the NE sector of the inner crater has been persistent almost continuously since first reported in 1972. (URL: http://www.sciencefriday.com/blog/2010/12/a-view-from-the-top-great-weather-on-erebus/. The eruptions were witnessed from 60 km away and explosions could be heard up to 2 km from the volcano (SEAN 11:03). The active vent, a small explosion crater adjacent to the lava lake, had re-formed and a small crater was seen around the site of a fumarole that had been active prior to September 1984. Scientists visited the summit of Mt. After the eruption there was a drop in the general level of the lava lake, which returned to its original level in about 15 minutes. As the lakes have increased in size, so has the SO2 flux. Kayla Iacovino posted a blog on 15 December 2010 about then-recent conditions on the summit of Erebus (Iacovino, 2011). Several observed eruptions from the largest lava pool ejected a small number of bombs onto the Main Crater floor. 2001: May À ne pas confondre avec le mont Elbrouz. This vent was not present in November but reappeared in early December in a similar position. Standing at an elevation of 12,444 ft (3,794 m), it's the second tallest volcano in Antarctica and the southernmost active volcano in the world. The approximately 100-m-long semicircular lava lake was still present. Researchers from New Mexico Tech, the University of Cambridge, and University College London made yearly expeditions there between 2003 and 2016. The larger image shows a true-color, photo-like view of the volcano, and the inset image shows thermal activity, highlighting the volcano’s molten lava lake. A recent airphoto showing the lava lake allowed a more precise determination of its size. Although no MODVOLC anomalies were recorded in January 2017, detectors on the Sentinel-2 satellite imaged two active lava lakes on 25 January. Another drop in activity occurred during 2010, and since 2011 there have been fewer than 300 pixels per year, with numbers below 200 for 2015 and 2016. Since 1974 several expeditions have been organized to evaluate the mass and energy transfer from the magma in the lava lake to the atmosphere. Scientists confirmed a stable pond of lava exists within the crater, raising the planet’s known number of lava lakes to seven. Scientists who subsequently examined the data EO-1 acquired confirmed that a genuine thermal emission had been detected. The absence of recorded eruptions from 13 April 2007 to 29 August 2007 is notable. erebus volcan antarctique book 1994 worldcat. The elevation of the new lake was not measured, but it appeared similar to the 1983 lake. References: Mattioli, G.S., and LaFemina, P.C., 2016, Final Report submitted to the National Science Foundation, Community Workshop: "Scientific Drivers and Future of Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO)" (URL: https://www.unavco.org/community/meetings-events/2016/mevo/2016-MEVO-Final-Report.pdf). The second lake is more in the center of the main crater and is intermittently active. 5, p. 29-31; 1982-83: v. 18, no. No major convective flow was noted. Wiesnet, D.R., and D'Aguanno, J., 1982, Thermal imagery of Mount Erebus from the NOAA-6 satellite: Antarctic Journal of the United States, v. 17, no. These clips were taken from an infrared camera mounted at the crater rim of Mount Erebus. Kelly P J, Dunbar N W, Kyle P R, McIntosh W C, 2008. "The summit was visited by a Japan-New Zealand-U.S. group in December. Many threw bombs over the crater rim, especially on the N side. This report briefly summarizes research activity at Mount Erebus, and volcanic activity observed since 1972. A small gas bubble burst was observed in one of the hornitos. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 USA. data indicate [little change in the width] of the crater rim, [despite the] lowering of the column. 5, p. 41-44; 1983-84: v. 19, no. Erebus. Lava was observed to rise rapidly in the active vent, and as it reached the rim the explosion occurred. antarctic ice marathon wele to the antarctic ice. "Last season the lava covered only part of the N half of the inner crater, moving along a curved path originating at the E end and disappearing in a tunnel at the W end. Summary of activity, 1972-2009. Reference. Atmosphere Heat Information Contacts: P. Kyle, New Mexico Inst. Seismicity remained above average through January 1985. Geothermal activity had changed little from previous observations. There were 6 significant eruptions which show up nicely on the MACZ (short period single vertical component) seismometer. Res., 177: 549-568. Information Contacts: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Alaska. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales. The existence of an anorthoclase phonolite lava lake in the summit crater of Mount Erebus was first reported in 1972, and it has been thought to be continuously active since that time. Almost no change in the shape of the persistent anorthoclase phonolite (Kenyte) lava lake was noted. Crater lava lake increases in size since 1974-75 summe. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the eruptive history of Mount Erebus, Antarctica: volcano evolution. Slight earth tremors were also felt there. . "From 13 to 19 September, the volcano was very active with 8-19 large explosions (recorded on WWSSN, IMESS, and infrasound instruments) per day, decreasing to 2-8/day 20-25 September, then increasing again to 12-27 explosions per day 26-29 September. The stations should be reactivated in October, when new batteries will be installed and the solar panels will function. Erebus in the Antarctic Journal of the United States (year described: citation); 1975: v. 11, no. Upwelling was difficult to detect as it did not usually involve bubble formation; instead, a slight increase of incandescence and cracking of the lava crust was the main surface manifestation. Oppenheimer, C., Kyle, P.R., 2008, Probing the magma plumbing of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, by open-path FTIR spectroscopy of gas emissions, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 177, p. 743-754. Mais il en existe aussi sous la calotte glaciaire. Activity during 2010-2016. Erebus Seismic Study (IMESS) [included] the number of earthquakes recorded per hour and day at Abbott Peak, September-November 1982. of Mining & Tech. ; P. Otway, NZGS, Wairakei. Earthquakes accompanied even the small explosions. read all There was no apparent correlation with explosive activity. Erebus: l'éruption du bout du monde C'est un volcan, découvert par James Ross en 1841, dont on n'entend que très peu parler mais qui est pourtant en éruption permanente depuis 1972, au moins, d'après le Global Volcanism Program. Reduction gas detection occurs as a result of the passage of certain species through a heated bed of mercuric oxide (HgO); this method allows detection of reducing gases from the low parts per billion (ppb) to low percentages. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided. In late December, the Strombolian eruptions increased in size, with bombs landing on the main crater floor and rim. Large pumiceous bombs; lava lake frozen and uplifted. No significant eruptions have occurred from the lava lake over the last 5 years and no bombs have been observed on the crater rim. Res, 108(B11), 2522. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JB002101. Bird. The cracks, 30-100 mm wide and 1.5 m deep in many places, were traced about 200 m around the N main crater rim. LeMasurier W E, Thomson J W (eds), 1990. A year later the lava lake had increased to a height of 120 m. During austral summer 1974-75, a team of volcanologists from France, New Zealand, and the United States will try to enter the crater to collect gas and lava. During a visit in 2010, only the NE sector lake was active (BGVN 36:09). (ed. Read Wikipedia in Modernized UI. Mont Erebus; Système solaire. In: Craddock C (ed) Antarctic Geoscience, Madison: Univ Wisconsin Press, p 735-745. This could indicate that the Werner lake is fed by a shallow offshoot of the conduit that supplies the Ray lake, or that magma feeding Werner lake is more comprehensively degassed due to a higher degree of crystallization.... References. Information Contacts: P. Kyle, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The pattern of volcanic activity remains similar to that observed a year ago. "Mt. . These are the first new bombs to be found on the rim in three years and suggest an increase in explosive activity. On the E end of the lava lake, two raised benches of consolidated lava are also suggestive of a slight lowering in the lava lake. doi: 10.13679/j.advps.2018.3.00165 September 2018 Vol. The high CO may be a function of the presumed high CO2 concentrations in the magma and its fairly low oxygen fugacity. Table 2 lists large and very large eruptions for the period December 2006 through 23 October 2007 (BGVN 31:12 gave a similar list for the year 2006 through November). SO2 emissions were monitored in December by COSPEC and ranged from 4 to 40 t/d with an average emission of about 20 t/d. J. Geophys. Passive degassing from the lake contributes a small plume and the SO2 content has usually been monitored in December by COSPEC (see Kyle and others, 1994 for COSPEC data up to 1991). The following is from Philip Kyle. The largest peaks in terms of numbers of eruptions were during 1995, 1997, 1998, 2000, and a broad peak beginning in late 2005 that continued into late 2006 (BGVN 31:12). The explosions occurred from a small new vent in the center of the inner crater, on the S edge of the former lava lake. "The lake was undergoing simple convection. From mid-November to mid-December, infrequent small Strombolian explosions ejected bombs to a few tens of meters from the lava lakes. Observers living in the summit hut commonly reported hearing several explosions per day. Activity was very low during 2000, but increased steadily through mid-2005 to more than 20 times as many annual thermal alert pixels since 2000. at depth between Mt. However, high CO levels significantly exceeded those of both HCl and SO2. . We see above in the Nasa picture the lava lake which has been monitored since 1972, this activity has been continuous since then with many minor explosions and occasional larger strombolian explosions that throw up lava bombs to the rim of the crater. Continuous lava-lake activity has been documented since 1972, punctuated by occasional Strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim. "Ash covered the NW side of the volcano down to 3,400 m elevation. | November. A small lava lake, ~15 m in diameter, was in a site similar to that of the former lake. "The persistent anorthoclase phonolite lava lake at Mt. During the first half of October, there were about 15 large explosions per day, most of which were recorded by infrasonic detectors at Windless Bight and the WWSSN seismograph at Scott Base, as well as by the seismograph network on the volcano. 3: 165-180 www.aps-polar.org A glacial control on the eruption rate of Mt Erebus, Antarctica Maximillian VAN WYK de VRIES* Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities campus, Minneapolis 55455, MN, United States Received 17 May 2018; accepted 31 July 2018 "Only a few small bombs were found on the crater rim and none were observed on the main crater floor, which suggests that there has been a considerable decrease in Strombolian eruptions compared to January, when up to six eruptions per day occurred. The consolidated crust on the lake appeared to be less continuous and was broken by numerous E-W cracks. Information Contacts: P. Kyle, Univ. On May 7, 2004, the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment on EO-1 first demonstrated its ability to detect volcanic activity by sensing thermal emissions at Erebus. It filled the large steaming collapse site SW of the main lava lake, and covered the S half of the inner crater with talus and debris. (ed. Erebus. Preliminary analysis of the seismic records show the level of seismicity to be normal. Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. The average flux seemed to be a function of the lava lake surface area. Human Presence, NASA Goddard Space The late 1984 eruption partially filled the inner crater with ejecta that obscured the magma column. The eruption sizes were based on comparisons of seismic data for known Erebus eruptions. [Although bombs from this activity are likely to have reached the rim, rapid alteration by the gas plume makes new bombs indistinguishable from older ones within a few weeks.] Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. Information Contacts: P. Kyle, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; R. Dibble, Victoria Univ. 2005: October Since 1976 its surface area has remained relatively constant. Erebus, 1978: Antarctic Journal of the United States, v. 13, no. Univ. Our last report on Erebus covered ongoing lava lake activity through October 2007 (BGVN 33:03). "We measured the emissions of seven gas species from Werner and Ray lava lakes at Erebus volcano by open-path FTIR spectroscopy. One eruption was seen to eject bombs about 300 m above the vent. of Alaska; P. Kyle, New Mexico Inst. "It has been previously reported that the level of the lava lake was dropping. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. This vent has been inactive for the last few years, but was the site of frequent (1-6/day) small Strombolian eruptions from 1972 to 1984. Ce fut un spectacle surpassant tout ce qu'il est possible d'imaginer… Nous ressentions un sentiment de crainte et d'impuissance, et en même temps, une incroyable émotion de pouvoir contempler le travail des mains du Créateur. Most explosions ejected a small number of very vesicular bombs that were typically 2-4 m in diameter but sometimes reached 6-8 m. Some of the bombs were ejected to heights of 500 m or more, possibly to as much as 1 km. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) website activity log gives information on each eruption of the volcano detected. Since 1991 the SO2 emissions have ranged between 40 and 70 Mg/day (megagrams/day is the SI unit equivalent to metric tons/day); bad weather limited measurements in December 1995. No tilt has been detected from arrays on the outer slopes of the crater rim during that time.]. During periods of moderate convection, degassing was quiet and spread more evenly over the lava lake. From August to December, the activity was extremely quiet.". . erebus volcan antarctique rakuten. Erebus activity log, several "small- to medium-sized" eruptions occurred during 12-18 October, with a "very large" eruption occurring on 14 October. The magma column is therefore not undergoing rapid changes due to crystal fractionation or influxes of new magma. Number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels recorded per month from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016 by the University of Hawaii's thermal alert system for Erebus. The Mount Erebus stratovolcano rises 3794 meters (12,447 feet) above sea level. Six minutes later, incandescent bombs were ejected to ~600 m above the summit; observers at Butter Point, 70 km from the volcano, reported seeing incandescent tephra from this explosion, which produced one of the larger infrasonic and seismic signals of the eruption sequence. The vent seemed to increase in size, reaching ~30 m in diameter by late December. The summit crater was visited by New Zealand, U.S., and Japanese scientists on several occasions between November 1982 and February 1983. The 3,794-m-high Erebus is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. Treves and P. Kyle, of Victoria University, New Zealand, first noticed increased activity in the volcano in the austral summer of 1972-73 when they observed a lava lake in the crater. The anorthoclase phonolite lava lake, which has persisted since its discovery in December 1972, occupied the entire N half of the inner crater. 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